Where did the drumming come from?

Percussion instruments (from medium high German: tru [m] me, tumble, tumble [onomatopoeic]), in which an (animal) skin is stretched over a mostly cylindrical body (frame) made of wood or, since the 18th century, made of metal at one or both openings, and which with T.- Sticks (usually made of wood or ivory), mallets or hands can be played. The systematic science of instruments counts them to the group of the membranophones.

(I) Both the form and the construction and designation are medieval T.-Types are very different. A distinction is made between flat, single or double-cell frameT.n, Ring-T.n and double-walled cylinder and boilerT.n different sizes. The story of the T.instruments, which are primarily used in the military sector, are in many ways related to the direct contact between the West and Islamic culture during the Middle Ages and the early modern period (Arab influences in Spain, crusades, Turkish wars).

Sebastian Virdung (Basel 1511) calls large boilerT.n "the big bugs". This designation is also found in the inventory of the Graz court orchestra from 1577, which "More two heerpaugkhen" lists. The fact that in the Graz State Armory 17 T.n and 35 T.- Mallets from the 16th to the 18th century have been preserved. Various entries in the state editions also bring interesting references to origin and sometimes also pass on some names of Austrian T.Manufacturers such as B. Hermann Cron and Michael Cronest 1574, Thoman Essinger 1576, Christoph Fueßl from Wolfsberg / K 1573.

In the 18th century the body of the T. also to be made of brass and to reduce its height (small T.). In addition, through the adoption of the so-called Janissary music (Turkish music), the Turkish traditionT. the large form of the T. (Size T.).

In the 2nd half of the 18th century T.n in the classical orchestra occasionally to use special effects, such as B. for "Alla Turca" scenes (W. A. ​​Mozart, Abduction from the seraglio, 1782, J. Haydn L’Incontro improvviso, 1775, L. v. Beethoven, Turkish march out The ruins of Athens, op. 113/4, 1811), military coloring (Mozart, counter dance La Bataille, KV 535, Haydn, Military symphony, Hob. I: 100, 1794, Beethoven, Wellington's victory op. 91, 1813, 9th Symphony, op. 125, 1824) or other sound scenes (Mozart, counter dance The thunderstorm, KV 534).

Not only in military music, but also in the numerous civil brass bands (wind orchestras) that were built in the 19th century, young and old belong T. a permanent part of the cast. The General Music School for Military Music by A. Nemetz, published in Vienna in 1844, contains a large number of military signals and T.- Delete which, from today's point of view, is particularly the Maneuvering march on behalf of the k. k. Court war councils for all k. k. army Deserves attention. The first eight bars of the march serve today (2006) - in a slightly different form - the Austrian military and civil bands for so-called "striking" of the march. In the 19th century it was also largely common in the “classical” orchestra to have a cymbal fixed on the large one T. to assemble and to have both instruments operated by the same musician, as z. B. is still prescribed in G. Mahler's 1st and 3rd symphonies.

Play an eminent meaning T.n in jazz and in modern light music, in which alongside small and large T., which has been made smaller and smaller since 1945 and is struck with a pedal device, the so-called foot machine, but also numerous fur instruments struck with mallets, sticks or with the fingers or palms, such as. B. tom-toms, bongos, conga drums, etc. are used. Among the most important Austrian Drummers, who also made a decisive contribution to the development of new playing techniques include E. Bachträgl, M. Josel and Thomas Lang (* 5.8.1967 Vienna).

(II) Apart from the T.n in modern percussion there are a number of T.-Types who played or still play a role in traditional music in Austria. That goes from the small, combined with the one-handed flute T. over the sideT., the Turkish T., the big and the small T. up to the bellT. Combined with the one-handed flute of the court minstrel (minstrels) T. was in today's Austria since the end of the 15th century with the emergence of the mercenary armies completely through the "game" of the side whistle (cockle) and sideT. replaced. This "two-man game", called "field game", finally established itself as a march accompaniment in all European armies. The rhythm part in this ensemble wasT. executed, a double-cell cylinderT. with or without a snare string, usually with a square lengthwise cut, which is struck with two mallets on the upper skin. It was also known as the "militaryT."," LandsknechtT.", "Soldiers-T."Or" linenT.“(Because of the tension of the cord); their playing technique was developed in the military. The instruments were painted in the colors of the respective troops they belonged to, kept in the armories and guarded like flags. Quite a few pagesT.n, which are kept in museums today are loot from a war. A new T.-Type occurred when, due to a fashion wave at the time of the Turkish wars, it was necessary to train “Turkish music” in Austria using “Turkish“ Turkish music ”in Austria using“ Turkish T." came. This was a mostly elongated cylinderT., which hung across the body of the player and was served from one side with a mallet and from the other with a rod. In the course of time, however, one gave up striking with the rod; the T. lost the height of the sides and became the instrument that brass bands call a "large." T.“Understands. The screw mechanism for head tensioning, patented for the first time in 1837, was important for this new development. By using this mechanism, the sideT., which was still used both in the military and on civil occasions, for the much flatter "screwT.". This innovation was introduced in the second half of the 19th century, with the same style of play, in the various armies. In the brass bands you can find this instrument today as a “small one T.". The old sideT., which has always been used outside of the military in traditional music, preferably together with Schwegel, e.g. B. in the peasant parades and carnival customs of the 15th and 16th centuries, in processions and guild and miner representation dances, v. a. But with the shooting associations, the Schwegel still lives in folk music as an accompanying instrument in those musical genres, the one T.- Request accompaniment, i.e. for marches and dances. The marches are often in 6/8 time and reflect the tradition of Austrian army music around 1800. A specialty in the Salzkammergut are the shooter dances played with Schwegeln, which are played from the side.T. be accompanied in 5/8 time. The "T.-Weiber “in the Aussee carnival are a parodic procession of men in women's clothing to accompany wind instruments, pot lids and T.n, the majority in the manner of the large ones T.n can be struck with just one mallet.

(I) Federhofer 1967; G. Stradner in P. Krenn (ed.), [Cat.] Drums and whistles - military tents - underhanders - Nuremberg weapons - arms trade and rifle production in Styria [1976]; MGG 9 (1998); Hopfner 1999. - (II) K. Birsak, Small Salzburg T.-Gesch. 2000; K. Birsak / M. King, The great Salzburg brass music book 1983; W. German / M. Walcher, Idiophones and Membranophones 2004; G. Duthaler et al., From the T.n and whistling 1986; K. M. Klier in The German folk song 29 (1927); K. M. Klier, Folk musical instruments in the Alps 1956; Ch. Terzer in [Cat.] The reputation of T. A noise instrument and its use in everyday life, war and customs. Special exhibition at Runkelstein Castle 2004, 2004; R. Zoder, Stir the game. Game music for two pipes and pieces from old tradition 1934. - Film documents: O. Bockhorn, The “Markter drum women” move to Bad Aussee 1978 (Film CTf 1652 of the Federal Headquarters for Scientific Cinematography [BHWK], accompanying publication in Scientific film 21 [1978]); O. Koenig, T. rhythm of the Bavarian mountain riflemen 990 (Film C 2069/2 of the Austrian Federal Institute for Scientific Film [ÖWF]; accompanying publication in Scientific film 45/46 [1994]).

Klaus Hubmann
Gerlinde Haid †
Klaus Hubmann / Gerlinde Haid †, Art. “Drum”, in: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon online, access: ().

[Last content change: 06/05/2001]