Who was Saul before he became king?
David was the most important king in the history of Israel (around 1000 BC). His hometown was Bethlehem. As the youngest son of the family, he was anointed king by the prophet Samuel (1 Samuel 16: 1-13). But it was a long time before he could ascend the throne. First he was brought to King Saul's court to ease his melancholy by playing the harp. In the proverbial "battle of David against Goliath", David - armed only with a slingshot - faced Goliath, a huge and heavily armed fighter of the Philistines, and defeated him (cf. 1 Samuel 17: 12-54).
A close friendship developed between David and Jonathan, the son of King Saul. When David was appointed military leader by Saul, he had great military successes in the fight against the Philistines. Saul even gave him his daughter Michal as a wife. Because of his successes, David was extremely popular with the people. Saul became jealous and planned to kill David. But David was able to get to safety in time. David had two opportunities to kill Saul, who was persecuting him; but he spared him (1 Samuel 24: 7). Saul and his sons eventually perished in a campaign waged by the Philistines against Israel.
After Saul's death, David was made king over the southern tribes of Israel in Hebron. A little later he managed to win over the northern tribes as well. David conquered Jerusalem and made it the capital of his kingdom. He built a royal palace and had the ark brought to Jerusalem. This made the city the religious center of the country. David also planned to build a temple in Jerusalem, but it was only built by his son Solomon.
King David was also able to achieve a lot in terms of foreign policy. He expanded his sphere of influence, put the neighboring Philistines in their place and brought the country to wealth through international trade relations.
Because David did not appoint any of his sons to be his successor, his sons quarreled about the succession to the throne even before his death. The coup attempt by his son Absalom failed. But David then struggled to hold the kingdom together within. David's successor was eventually his son Solomon.
Despite his downsides, which are not kept secret in the Bible (e.g. adultery with Bathsheba; 2 Samuel 11-12), David was considered the ruler whom God had chosen (1 Samuel 16: 1-13); God gave him success in what he did.
Based on God's promise that a descendant of David should always be the king of Israel (2 Samuel 7: 11-16), the view arose since the prophets of the Old Testament that the expected savior for the people of Israel should be a descendant (son ) Should be David's. So the title "Son of David" becomes a nickname for Jesus Christ.
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