What is a split of hair

Splitter (ADSL)

The splitter distributes the combined telephone and DSL signal to two hardware outputs.

The splitter has the task of separating the incoming signal on the landline line based on its frequency and leading it out to two different outputs. The splitter corresponds to a crossover network with an integrated high and low pass filter. This ensures that the respective end devices only receive the signal that is intended for them and cannot be disturbed by the other signal.

When operating a telephone on a telephone connection with DSL, but without a splitter, you can hear a hissing noise. A crossover network is included in good telephones so that there is usually no interference with the telephone. However, telephone signals mean an increase in the error rate and a reduction in the data rate for the DSL modem. Under no circumstances should telephones and DSL modems simply be connected in parallel to one another. This leads to impedance shifts and short circuits.

A splitter consists of coils and capacitors that are connected together as a low-pass and high-pass filter. Coils and capacitors are anything but ideal filters. There are quality differences that can influence the data rate. Low-quality capacitors have a higher amplitude-dependent capacitance and distort and smear the signal more than high-quality capacitors. And coils can also cause distortion.
Coils and capacitors suffer from sample variance, which leads to the filter being inaccurate. The quality of the filter depends on the quality and accuracy of the individual components. In order to rule out problems, there is a safety distance of approx. 18 kHz between the telephone frequency and the frequency spectrum used by ADSL.

A splitter definitely has an impact on the transmission speed of the DSL connection. In principle, an old splitter also works on new ADSL2 or ADSL2 + connections. But a splitter from the early days of DSL can slow down an ADSL2 + modem. The transmission speed could be higher with a new splitter.

ADSL technology

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