What is a single-hauled plant

What is monoecious, dioecious and hermaphrodite in biology?

Monoecious and dioecious plants as well as hermaphroditic flowers describe types of sexuality, or rather the gender division. This article introduces the different types and their different advantages and disadvantages.

The three types of sexuality in plants

Just like with humans, seed plants have both feminine and masculine gender aspects. The female sexual aspects are called carpels, the male stamens.

Pollination takes place as follows: The pollen of the stamens must be transported to the stigmas of the carpels in order to be able to be fertilized there. The best known form of pollination is cross-pollination.

The best-known cross-pollinators are bees, but other insects also unknowingly transport pollen from one place to another. Other possible pollinators are wind and water. These forms of pollination are called anemophilicity and hydrophilicity. Humans also work as pollinators. Because with some types of fruit trees, human help is needed to ensure that the plants are fertilized.

The type of sexuality refers to where plants have their stamens and carpels. Three types have emerged.

Living apart: The carpels and stamens live on different plants. This type is called dioecious plants. In order to ensure pollination, at least one male and one female plant of this species are required.

Living together: Both sexual aspects are housed on one plant. A distinction is made between not more separate and separate unity.

Not separate monoecious plants are called Hermaphrodite flowers. Both sexual aspects live together on one flower. Many fruit trees are hermaphroditic flowers.

Separate monoecious plants are simply called monoecious plants designated. Both gender aspects are on the same plant, but not in the same place. Walnut and hazelnut are well known monoecious plants.

What exactly are monoecious plants?

Unity will also be Monoecia called. Monocy means that the female and male parts of the plant live on the same plant, but not in the same place. Carpels and stamens are separate from each other.

One advantage of monoity over all other types of sexuality is its efficiency for cross-pollinators. The female and male parts of the flower are clearly separated from each other, but still on the same plant.

Monözie is a further development of the hermaphrodite. The monoecious flowering plants - colloquially also called flowering plants - were originally hermaphroditic flowers. However, since self-pollination rarely brings fertile results, it is better to separate male and female gender aspects from each other. In the case of monoeye, this could partly be done, although it is still a matter of the gender aspects of the same plant. The further development of the unity is the duplex, which has completely solved this problem. On the other hand, dioecious plants have other disadvantages, which will be discussed below.

Monoity is divided into different subspecies. This includes Andromonomy, Gynomonomy and Trimonomy. In Andromonözie the plant consists of a hermaphrodite flower and additional male stamens. The hermaphrodite flower and the stamens are separate from each other. In Gynomonözie there are female carpels in addition to the hermaphrodite flower. In Trimonözie the plant has female and male leaves and a hermaphrodite flower.

What exactly are hermaphrodite flowers?

One speaks of hermaphrodite flowers when the stamens (i.e. the male genitals of the flower) and carpels (the female parts) are united on one flower. Hermit will also be Hermaphroditism called.

Hybrid flowers have the advantage of having both sexual aspects combined on one flower, but self-fertilization, also known as inbreeding, is rarely successful. Therefore, many hermaphrodite flowers need the pollen (the fertile parts of the stamens) of a different variety.

If a fruit tree in your own garden is hardly productive, it is often a hybrid plant. Human cross-pollination or a second fruit tree of the same species can solve the problem.

What exactly are dioecious plants?

In dioecious plants, the female carpels and the male stamens are located on different plants. This is called Diocese. One advantage of this division is the avoidance of so-called inbreeding depression.

Inbreeding depression occurs in hermaphrodite plants that pollinate themselves. In plants, a reduction in genetic diversity has just as devastating consequences as it does in animals and humans. It is interesting that in some cases inbreeding in plants is self-regulating. This is called Purging.

A disadvantage of dioecious plants is that only half of all plants form stamens. This results in a lower pollination rate.

The ginko tree and the kiwi are the best-known representatives of this type of sexuality. But cycads and some gnetopsidas are also dioecious plants.