Which state is related to the Mithila painting


Ethnic groups

The population of Nepal is around 29.1 million people. The fascinating ethnic diversity is the result of a long history of immigration and the topography of Nepal, which made communication between different parts of the country and ethnic groups difficult. Many ethnic groups developed in isolation from each other.

The many ethnic groups in the country can be summarized in three large groups: The first includes the Indonepalese, around three quarters of the total population, who are the descendants of immigrant Indians. The second group are the Tibetan Palestinians (Tamang, Gurung, Newar, Thakali, Rai, Magar, Limbu, and Tharu) who make up about a quarter of the population and to whom most of the high mountain tribes belong. The third and smallest group are the Tibetan peoples (Sherpa, Tibetan refugees), whose share is just under 1%.


The society of Nepal is strongly influenced by the Brahmanic caste system from northern India and its social code. Although the caste system was banned as early as 1963 in the New National Code and in the 1991 constitution of Nepal, the legal elimination of the castes could in no way undo the political and economic power of the high caste over the rest of the population.

In the 2001 census, 15% of the population were identified as Chetri and 12% as Brahmins (Bahuns). Almost all Nepalese politicians still belong to the Hochkasten (Bahuns and Chetris). Dalits ("the oppressed") must wrestle for their equality.


Only 17 percent of the country's area is agriculturally usable and there is a high dependency on monsoon rains. High population growth, small farm sizes, unevenly distributed land ownership and the bonded labor system mean that the majority of the rural population is poor.

The rural dwellers are exposed to a great livelihood risk, many are forced to look for work in the cities or abroad. Since the mid-1970s there has been an increased migration to the cities. Although the proportion of the urban population is comparatively low by international standards, Nepal now has the highest rate of rural exodus in all of South Asia.


It is estimated that there are up to 30,000 Tibetan refugees living in Nepal today, most of them since 1959, when the Chinese government enforced its political control through armed violence against insurgents in Tibet. In isolated cases, immigration to Nepal continues.

As a result of the expulsion and flight of Nepalese of southern Bhutanese at the beginning of the 1990s, over 110,000 people have since lived in camps in the eastern part of Nepal. Around 108,000 of the Nepalese Lhotsampa were able to travel to the USA (92,000), Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Europe. Because the funds for the maintenance of the refugees are shrinking and the previous camps are gradually emptying, the UNHCR has started, together with the Nepalese government, to merge the camps and to centralize food distribution and health services.

As a result of the civil war, 50,000 Nepali became refugees in their own country.