Who was the Roman equivalent of Zeus
Greek & Roman gods
A list of the main gods of ancient Greece and their respective Roman counterparts. In addition to the Olympic (main) gods, numerous other well-known deities are briefly introduced - including their origins, symbols, etc.
Greek & Roman gods and their properties
|Zeus||Jupiter||Heaven and weather god, head of the Olympian gods||Kronos & Rhea||C.||Lightning, thunderbolt, oak, eagle|
|Hera||Juno||Goddess of marriage and childbirth, sister & consort of Zeus, supreme goddess||Kronos & Rhea||C.||Diadem; Scepter, branch; peacock|
|Demeter||Ceres||Goddess of fertility, agriculture and grain||Kronos & Rhea||C.||Ears of grain; Cornucopia with fruits|
|Hestia||Vesta||Goddess of Home Peace, Hearth & Fire; State goddess of Rome||Kronos & Rhea||C.||Stove, pillow, stole|
|Poseidon||Neptune||God of the sea, earthquakes, horses||Kronos & Rhea||C.||Trident; wild look, dolphin|
|Ares||Mars||God of war, blood bath and massacre||Zeus & Hera||C.||Armed (sword, etc.), armor|
|Hephaestus||Vulcanus||God of fire, blacksmith of the gods||Zeus & Hera||C.||Fire, blacksmithing, weapons, hammer|
|Aphrodite||Venus||Goddess of love, beauty and sensuality||Zeus & Dione|
|C.||Pigeon, apple (of Paris); mirror|
|Athena||Minerva||Goddess of wisdom, the arts, crafts, strategy and war||Zeus & Metis||C.||Helmet, lance, shield, olive tree, owl|
|Apollo||Apollo||God of light, prophecy, the arts, the healing arts, spring, as well as moral purity and moderation||Zeus & Leto||C.||Bow and arrow; Quiver; Lyre (kithara); Laurel ivy tendrils|
|Artemis||Diana||Goddess of the hunt, of the moon and of childbirth,||Zeus & Leto||C.||Bow and arrow, deer|
|Hermes||Mercury||God of the market and trade as well as of thieves, patron saint of science and invention. Messenger of the gods||Zeus & Maia||C.||Wing shoes; Rod|
|Hades||Pluto||God of the underworld; God of the dead||Kronos & Rhea||O||Throne, crown, dog, skull|
|Lift||Juventas||Goddess of youth||Zeus & Hera||O||Pitcher (nectar)|
|Eileithyia||-||Goddess of birth||Zeus & Hera||O|
|Persephone||Proserpine||Goddess of the dead, underworld and fertility||Zeus & Demeter||O|
|Dionysus||Bacchus||God of wine, vegetation and ecstasy||Zeus & Semele||O||Ivy & vines; Bacchus stick (Thyrsus)|
|Heracles||-||Demigod (also Hercules)||Zeus & Alkmene||O||Lion skin, club, bow|
|Asclepius||Aesculapius||God of healing.||Apollon & Koronis||S.||Staff, snake, laurel|
|Eirene||Pax||Goddess of peace and moral order.||Zeus & Themis||S.||Olive branch, cornucopia, scepter|
|Hecate||Hecata||Goddess of crossroads, hunting, magic, spooks||Perses & Asteria||S.||Torch, dagger, key|
|Nike||Victoria||Goddess of victory||Pallas & Styx||S.||Scepter, laurel wreath|
|Pan||Faunus||Shepherd god; God of the forest & nature||Zeus & Callisto||S.||flute|
|Tyche||Fortuna||Goddess of luck and fate||Hermes & Aphrodite||S.||Cornucopia, rudder, wheel of fortune|
|Gaia||Tellus, Terra||Goddess and mother of the earth||chaos||U|
|Nyx||Nox||Goddess of the night||chaos||U||Ravens|
|Eros||Cupid / Cupid||God of love||chaos||U||bow and arrow|
|Eos||Aurora||Goddess of the dawn||Hyperion & Theia||T||Carriage with two horses|
|Kronos||Saturn||God of agriculture; Leader of the titans||Uranos & Gaia||T||Scythe, sickle|
|Rhea||Ops||Goddess of the earth & fertility, mother of gods & titan||Uranos & Gaia||T||Athens, Rhodes, Thebes|
|Themis||-||Goddess of justice, order, philosophy||Uranos & Gaia||T|
|Atlas||-||Titan supporting the vault of heaven||Iapetos & Asia||T||Globe, pronounced shoulders|
|Prometheus||-||Bringer of fire, creator of man made of clay?||Iapetus & Clymene||T||Eagles, fire, fetters|
|Uranus||Uranus||God of the sky and the elements||First son of Gaia who was born without copulation.||V.|
|Thanatos||Mors / Letum||God of Death||Erebos & Nyx||V.|
|Aither||ether||God of the sky above (seat of light).||Eberos & Nyx||V.|
|Geras||Senectus||God of old age||Eberos & Nyx||V.|
|Hypnos||Somnus||God of sleep||Erebos & Nyx||V.||Opium poppies (flowers), wreath of hair|
|Momos||Querella||God of blame and criticism||Son of the Nyx||V.||Quirk|
|Eris||Discordia||Goddess of discord and strife; threw the apple of contention (Erisapfel)||Daughter of the Nyx||V.||Apple of discord (apple of contention)|
|Nemesis||-||Goddess of vengeance, of undeserved happiness||Daughter of the Nyx||V.||Hourglass, sword|
|Oizys||Miseria||Goddess of misery and lamentation.||Daughter of the Nyx||V.|
|Philotes||Amicitia||Goddess of friendship||Daughter of the Nyx||V.|
|Selene||Luna||Goddess of the moon and magic||Hyperion & Theia||V.||Carriage with two horses, torch, (half) moon|
|Helios||Sol||Sun god||Hyperion & Theia||V.||Carriage with 4 horses, winged, halo|
|Enyo||Bellona||Goddess of war||Ares? &?||S.||Demons, helmet, sword, spear|
|-||flora||Goddess of spring and flowers||-||S.||blossoms|
|-||Janus||God of the beginning and the end, of the entrances and exits||-||S.||Janus head (symbol of ambivalence)|
|Priapus||-||Fertility god||Dionysus & Aphrodite||S.||phallus|
The origin of the individual gods is sometimes difficult to determine because the Greek sources (Hesiod (between 750 - 650 BC) and Homer (between 820 - 720 BC)) and the Roman (Cicero (106 - 43 BC) and Hyginus (60 BC - 4 AD)) contradict each other and occasionally provide alternative information about the family trees of the theogony.
C = Consentes
The Dei consentes or Dii consentes were a group of 12 gods (6 female & 6 male) who were particularly venerated by the Romans. They are in position 1-12 in the table above.
O = Olympic
The Greeks also knew these 12 gods, but expanded the circle of inhabitants of Olympus to 18 Olympians: the 5 siblings of Zeus and 10 of his divine children. In addition, there were 2 children of Zeus by mortal women who were later accepted into Olympus.
U = original
According to the Greek creation story, 5 deities emerged from the “chaos”. Three are featured in the list. The two deities Erebos (the god of darkness in the underworld) and Tartaros (the underworld, place and person at the same time) were not so important.
V = pre-Olympic
The two original female deities, Gaia and Nyx, gave birth (with or without men) to a vast number of pre-Olympic deities. In particular, Gaia and her son Uranus, who was born without copulation, turned out to be very fertile: Erinyes, Cyclops, giants and the titans (= T) are their children.
T = titans
The two titans Kronos and Rhea fathered the god father Zeus as well as 5 siblings: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades and Poseidon. In order to take over power, Kronos had emasculated his own father with a sickle and thus made himself ruler. According to tradition (Hesiod), the goddess Aphrodite arose from the seed of the severed genitals, which fell into the sea. According to Homer, however, Aphrodite is the daughter of Zeus and Dione.
Zeus also declared the fight to dethrone him to his father Kronos. He and his siblings fought from Mount Olympus against the titans who had holed up on the Othrys.
When the battle has not yet been decided after ten years, Gaia advises him to free the Titan siblings, the Cyclops and Hekatoncheiren, who are held captive in Tartarus. The titans are then defeated and banished in the Tartaros, the Hekatoncheirs become their guardians.
Gaia advises the gods to make Zeus their ruler. This divides the world into three realms: Zeus himself rules the sky, Poseidon the sea and Hades the underworld.
S = other
Gods who usually descend from the Olympian gods and thus only indirectly from the primordial gods.
Greek mythology concerns the origin of the world, life and activities of deities, heroes and mythological creatures. It was originally used by Minoan and Mycenaean singers from the 18th century BC. Widespread. They later became part of the oral tradition of Homer's epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, and the Battle for Troy (around 1200 BC).
Over the centuries, the balance of power in the Mediterranean changed. The formerly influential states of Greece, Egypt, Phoenicians and Carthage increasingly lost their influence and the Roman Empire continued to expand.
From the 5th century BC The Romans began to import the gods of the Greeks under the influence of the Etruscans. Both mythologies had a major impact on the culture, art, and literature of Western civilization. Poets and artists from antiquity to the present have been inspired by it.
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