Did Jesus do the ablution before praying?

Ablution in Christianity - Ablation in Christianity

Christ washes the Apostles' feet, by Giotto di Bondone (Cappella Scrovegni a Padova)

Ablution in religion is a prescribed washing of part or all of the body or property, such as clothing or ceremonial objects, with the intention of purification or dedication. In Christianity, both baptism and foot washing are forms of ablution. Before the canonical hours of praying at seven fixed times of prayer, Eastern Orthodox Christians wash their hands and faces (cf. Agpeya , Shehimo ). In liturgical churches, ablution can refer to the cleaning of fingers or vessels related to the Eucharist. In the New Testament, washing is also done in relation to rites of Judaism that are part of Jesus' healing action, the preparation of a body for burial, the washing of nets by fishermen, the personal washing of a person's face to appear in public , cleaning the wounds of an injured person, Pontius Pilates washing hands as a symbolic claim to innocence and washing feet, today partly a symbolic rite within the church. According to the Gospel of Matthew, Pontius Pilate declared himself innocent of washing the blood of Jesus through his hands. However, this act of Pilate may not have been borrowed from the custom of the Jews. The same practice was common among the Greeks and Romans.

According to Christian tradition, the Pharisees led the washing practice to a great excess. The Gospel of Mark refers to their ceremonial ablutions: "For the Pharisees ... wash your hands 'often'" or, more precisely, "with your fist" (RV, "diligently"); or, as Theophylact of Bulgaria explains, "to the elbow", referring to the word used in the Greek New Testament π γμή pygmē that extends on the arm from the elbow to the Fingertips relates. In the Acts of the Apostles, Paul and other men performed an ablution before entering the temple in Jerusalem: "Then Paul took the men and the next day he cleansed himself with them in the temple to mark the completion of the days of cleansing until that an offer should be made to each of them. "

In the Old Testament, ablution was seen as a prerequisite for approaching God, be it through sacrifice, prayer or entering a holy place. Around the time of Tertullian, an early church father, it was customary for Christians to hold their hands ( Manulavium ), Face ( Capitilavium ) and feet ( Pedilavium ) before prayer and before receiving Holy Communion washed . Churches from the time of Constantine the Great were therefore built with an exonarthex that contained a cantharus in which Christians washed their hands, face, and feet before entering the worship room. The practice of ablutions before prayer and worship in Christianity symbolizes "separation from sins of the spirit and surrender to the Lord".

The Bible contains many cleansing rituals related to menstruation, childbirth, sexual relationships, nocturnal emission, unusual body fluids, skin diseases, death, and animal sacrifice. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church prescribes different types of hand washing, for example after leaving the latrine, the toilet or the bathhouse or before prayer or after eating. Women in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church are prohibited from entering the church temple during menstruation. and the men do not enter a church the day after intercourse with their wives.

Christianity has always placed great emphasis on hygiene. Despite the denunciation of the mixed bathing style of the Roman ponds by early Christian clergy, as well as the pagan custom of women bathing naked in front of men, this did not prevent the church from requiring devotees to go to public baths for bathing, which after the hygiene and health contributed Church father, Clement of Alexandria. The church also built public bathing establishments, separated for both sexes near monasteries and pilgrimage sites. The popes also set up baths in church basilicas and monasteries since the early Middle Ages. Pope Gregory the Great urged his followers to view bathing as a physical need. Contrary to popular belief, bathing and sanitary facilities were not lost in Europe with the collapse of the Roman Empire. Soap making first became an established industry in the so-called "dark age". The Romans used fragrant oils (mainly from Egypt), among other things. By the mid-19th century, the English urbanized middle classes had developed an ideology of cleanliness that stood alongside typical Victorian concepts such as Christianity, respectability and social progress. The Salvation Army has taken over the movement of using personal hygiene and providing products for personal hygiene.

Ablution in the bible

The Bible contains many cleansing rituals related to menstruation, childbirth, sexual relationships, nocturnal emission, unusual body fluids, skin diseases, death, and animal sacrifice. In the Old Testament, ablution was seen as a prerequisite for approaching God, be it through sacrifice, prayer or entering a holy place.

The Bible contains various rules about bathing:

And whoever has the problem (a Zav , Ejaculant with unusual discharge), who touches without having rinsed his hands with water, should wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until evening (Leviticus 15:11).

Then seven clean days are required, culminating in a ritual and temple sacrifice before the Zav from his illness freed is:

In the event that the one who has a running discharge gets clean of his running discharge, he must allow seven days for his cleaning for himself, and he must wash his clothes and bathe his flesh in running water; and it has to be clean. And on the eighth day, he should take two lovebirds or two young pigeons for himself and he must come to the entrance of the meeting tent and give them to the priest (Leviticus 15: 13-14).

And also tips on hand washing:

I will wash my hands in innocence; So I will go round your altar, Lord (Psalm 26: 6).

The mikvah in the Bible is a bath that is used for the purpose of ritual immersion. The word is used in a broader sense, but generally means a collection of water. Several biblical precepts state that complete immersion in water is required to regain ritual purity after ritually unclean events have occurred. A person had to be ritually clean to enter the temple. In this context, "purity" and "impurity" are incomplete translations of the Hebrew "tahara" and "tumah", respectively, since the negative connotation of the word "impurity" is not intended; Rather, to be "impure" means to be in a state in which certain things are forbidden until one has become "pure" again by immersing in a mikveh.

After the temple was destroyed, the main uses of the mikvah remained as follows:

  • by women to achieve ritual purity after menstruation or childbirth before they and their husbands can resume marital relationships;
  • by men to achieve ritual purity;
  • Dip newly acquired utensils for serving and eating.

Ablution in Christian traditions

Crowds gather at the Fasiladas bath in Ethiopia to celebrate Epiphany.

Traditionally, Christianity adhered to the biblical prescription which prescribes the purification of women after childbirth. This practice was adapted into a special ritual known as the blessing of women, for the liturgy exists in the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer, but its use is now rare in Western Christianity. The Frauenkirche is still carried out in a number of Eastern Christian churches (Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches).

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church prescribes different types of hand washing, for example after leaving the latrine, the toilet or the bathhouse or before prayer or after eating. Women in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church are prohibited from entering the church temple during menstruation. and the men do not enter a church the day after intercourse with their wives.

Traditionally, Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Lutherans, and Anglicans of the High Church must attend confession regularly in order to ritually cleanse sin from sin, especially in preparation for receiving the Eucharist. This is required at least once a year for Catholics and for those who are guilty of undisclosed deadly sins.

In Reformed, ritual purity is achieved through confession of sins and the assurance of forgiveness and sanctification. Through the power of the Holy Spirit, believers offer their whole being and their work as “living sacrifices”. and cleanliness becomes a way of life (see Romans 12: 1 and John 13: 5–10 (washing the feet).

Washing before Christian prayer and worship

A cantharus is a well that Christians use for ablution before entering a church. These washes include washing the hands, face, and feet. The Cantharus is traditionally located in the exonarthex of the Church. The water given off by a Cantharus is said to be running water. The practice of ablutions before prayer and worship in Christianity symbolizes "separation from sins of the spirit and surrender to the Lord". Eusebius recorded this practice of the Canthari in the courtyards of the churches so that the faithful can wash themselves before entering a Christian house of worship. The practice has its origins in the Jewish practice of performing ablutions before entering the presence of God (cf. Exodus 30: 17-21). Although Canthari are no longer as common in Western Christianity, they can be found in Eastern Christian and Oriental Christian churches.

history

Christianity has always placed great emphasis on hygiene. Despite denouncing the mixed bathing style of the Roman ponds by early Christian clergy, as well as the pagan custom of women bathing naked in front of men, this did not prevent the church from urging its followers to bathe in public baths for hygiene and health that contributed Church Fathers, Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian. The church also built public bathing establishments, separated for both sexes near monasteries and pilgrimage sites. The popes also set up baths in church basilicas and monasteries since the early Middle Ages. Pope Gregory the Great urged his followers to view bathing as a physical need.

Large bathhouses were built in Byzantine centers such as Constantinople and Antioch, and the popes assigned to the Romans bathed through Diakonia or private Lateran baths or even a variety of monastery bathhouses that functioned in the 8th and 9th centuries. The Popes maintained their baths in their homes, what the scholar Paolo Squatriti called "luxurious baths" and in bathhouses, including hot baths built into buildings of the Christian Church or in monasteries known as "charity baths", because they served both clergy and clergy needy poor people. Public bathing was common in major Medivail Christian cities such as Paris, Regensburg, and Naples. The Catholic orders according to the rules of the Augustinians and Benedictines contained ritual cleansing and were inspired by the encouragement of Benedict of Nursia to practice therapeutic bathing. Benedictine monks played a role in developing and promoting spas. Protestant Christianity also played a prominent role in the development of British spas.

In circa 1454 Pope Nicholas V commissioned a building bath palace in Viterbo and the construction of it Bagno del Papa was mentioned after having carried out payments in the bath palace for the construction “Nicholas V. The Vatican - accounts continued through the rule of several popes Viterbo" during the reigns of Calixtus III, Paul II and Sixtus IV. There is also evidence that Pope Pius II was responsible for adding a west wing to the building.

Contrary to popular belief, bathing and sanitation were not lost in Europe with the collapse of the Roman Empire, as the spread of the Black Death resulted in "medieval people looking for a link between health and hygiene". Soap making became an established industry for the first time in the so-called "dark age". The Romans used fragrant oils (mainly from Egypt), among other things. By the 15th century, soap making was practically industrialized in Christianity, with sources in Antwerp, Castile, Marseille, Naples, and Venice. By the mid-19th century, the English urbanized middle classes had developed an ideology of cleanliness that stood alongside typical Victorian concepts such as Christianity, respectability and social progress. The Salvation Army has taken over the movement for the use of personal hygiene and by providing personal hygiene products such as toothbrushes, toothpaste, and soap.

Believing that on Epiphany Day water becomes sacred and is imbued with special powers, Eastern Orthodox cut holes in the ice of the lakes and rivers, often in the shape of the cross, to bathe in the ice-cold water. Christianity has greatly influenced the development of sacred wells in Europe and the Middle East, and its waters are known for their healing properties.

The use of water in many Christian countries is due in part to the biblical toilet etiquette, which encourages washing after all cases of bowel movements. The bidet is common in predominantly Catholic countries, where water is considered essential for anal cleaning, and in some traditionally Orthodox and Lutheran countries such as Greece and Finland, where bidet showers are common.

Eucharistic ablutions

Western Christian

In the Roman rite, the celebrant washes his hands before going to mass, but with one more prayer ( There, domine, virtutem ). This is said privately in the sacristy. He will then wash his hands again after the offertory - this is the ceremony considered the real one Lavabo is known . This linen appears both in the Tridentine Mass, the 1962 edition of which is still an authorized special form of the Roman Rite, and in the Mass after the Second Vatican Council. The reason for this "second" hand washing probably developed from the long time ceremony of receiving the loaves and vessels of wine from the people in the offertory used in Rome. In the Gallican rite, the offerings were prepared before the beginning of mass, as in the Eastern liturgy of preparation, so that there was neither a long version of the offertory nor a place for a washbasin before the Eucharistic prayer. In the Middle Ages, the Roman Rite actually had two handwashes, one before and one after the offertory. That first one has since disappeared, and the remaining one is the second.

In the Tridentine Mass and similar Anglo-Catholic Mass, the term "ablutions" refers to when the priest rinses his hands first in wine and then in water after communion. It is to be distinguished from the washbasin when the celebrant washes his hands only with water and recites the words of Psalm 26: 6–12 (King James Version - in the Septuagint it is Psalm 25) in the offertory.

In the mass of Paul VI. And in the Anglican Eucharist, the priest does not normally use wine to wash his hands when washing, although it is allowed, only water.

Eastern and Oriental Christian

Before praying canonical hours at seven fixed times of prayer, Eastern Orthodox Christians wash their hands, faces and feet (cf. Agpeya , Shehimo ).

In the Eastern Orthodox and Greek Catholic churches, the term "ablution" refers to consuming the remainder of the gifts (body and blood of Christ) at the end of the divine liturgy. Holy Communion of both types (the body and blood of Christ) is always received not only by the clergy but also by the believers. This is achieved by adding the particles of the consecrated lamb (bread) to the chalice and distributing communion to the believers with a spoon. The portion that remains in the chalice must be consumed.

The ablutions are usually performed by the deacon, but if no deacon is serving, the priest will perform them. According to the litany of Thanksgiving that follows communion, the deacon will come into the sanctuary and kneel, place his forehead on the sacred table (altar) and the priest will bless him to consume the gifts contained in the prosthesis ( Oblation table). First, with the liturgical spoon, he will consume all of the body and blood of Christ that remain in the chalice. Then he pours hot water on the disks (paten), which is then poured into the chalice and consumed (this serves to consume any particles that may remain on the disks). Next, the liturgical spear, spoon and chalice are rinsed first with wine and then with hot water, which are then consumed. All sacred vessels are then wiped dry with a towel, wrapped in their fabric covers and put away.

Since the ablutions necessarily require the consumption of the sacred mysteries (of the body and blood of Christ), a priest or deacon may only perform them after he has fully prepared himself for Holy Communion through fasting and lengthy preparation.

When a priest needs to bring Holy Communion to the sick or at home when he is not prepared to receive the sacred secrets, he can wash the chalice by pouring water into it and asking the person to whom he has brought the sacrament (or a baptized child) who due to their youth are not required to prepare for communion) to consume ablution.

If the reserved secrets are to become moldy, they must still be consumed in the same way as the ablutions after the liturgy (usually a reasonable amount of wine is poured over them to soften and disinfect them before consumption). They shouldn't be burned or buried. To prevent this from happening, if the mysteries are to be reserved for the sick, they should be thoroughly dried before being placed in the tabernacle.

Christening washes

In Orthodox Christianity, ablution also takes place on the eighth day after baptism. Immediately after being baptized, every person, including an infant, is confirmed the mystery (sacrament) of the anointing of myron. In the early church, the places where the person was anointed with Chrism were carefully bandaged and kept covered for eight days. During this time, the newly enlightened (newly baptized) also wore his baptismal robe every day. At the end of the eight days, the priest removed the bandages and the baptismal robe and performed ablutions over him. While the bandage no longer takes place, the ritual ablutions are still performed.

The newly enlightened (newly baptized) is brought back to the church for ablution by his godparents. The priest places him in the middle of the church, in front of the holy doors, to the east. He loosens the belt of his baptismal robe and prays for him that God may keep the newly enlightened thing in purity and enlighten him through grace. Then he dips a sponge in water and sprinkles it in the sign of the cross with the words: "You are justified. You are enlightened. You are sanctified. You are washed: in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen." Then, as he says the next prayer, he washes every place where he was anointed with Chrisma. Next, he performs the tonsure, symbolic of the life of self-sacrifice that a Christian must lead.

Washing the feet

Many Christian churches practice a foot washing ceremony modeled on Jesus in the gospel. Some interpret this as a regulation that the church must obey as a commandment, see also the biblical law in Christianity. Others interpret it as an example that everyone should follow. Most denominations that practice the rite will perform it on Maundy Thursday. Often in these services, the bishop washes the feet of the clergy and in monasteries the abbot will wash the feet of the brothers.

Saint Benedict of Nursia states in his Rule that the feet of visitors to the monastery should be washed and that those who are to serve in the kitchen that week should wash the feet of all the brothers. At one time, most European monarchs also performed foot washing in their royal courts on Maundy Thursday, a practice that the Austro-Hungarian Emperor and King of Spain continued until the beginning of the 20th century (see Royal Maundy). .

Washing of the feet is also observed by numerous Protestant and proto-Protestant groups, including Seventh-day Adventists, Pentecostal and Pietists, some Anabaptists, and various types of Southern Baptists. Foot washing rites are also practiced by many Anglican, Lutheran, and Methodist churches, with foot washing most commonly experienced in connection with Maundy Thursday services and sometimes ordination services where the bishop can wash the feet of those who are to be ordained. Although history shows that the washing of feet was sometimes practiced in connection with baptism and sometimes as a standalone occasion, by far the most common practice was in association with sacrament services. The Moravian Church practiced foot washing until 1818. The practice has been revived as other liturgical churches have rediscovered this practice.

Ablutions for the dead

When an Orthodox Christian dies, his body is washed and dressed before the burial. Although this custom does not impose ritual purity, it is an important aspect of charitable care for the deceased. Ideally, this shouldn't be forwarded to an undertaker, but rather done by family members or friends of the deceased.

When an Orthodox priest or bishop dies, these ablutions and draperies are performed by the clergy, with the same prayers being said for each drapery that are said when the deceased bishop or priest is in charge of the divine liturgy. After a bishop's body has been washed and clothed, he sits on a chair and the dikirion and trikirion are placed in his hands for the last time.

When an Orthodox monk dies, his body is washed by brothers of his monastery and dressed in his monastic habit. Two major differences are that when his cloak is placed on him, his hem is torn to form ligaments that connect his body (like Lazarus in the tomb) and his klobuk is placed backwards on his head so that the Monk's veil covers his face (to show that he had already died for the world before his physical death). When an Orthodox nun dies, the sisterhood of her monastery performs the same services for her as it does for monks.

In the Roman Catholic Church, the absoute (or Absolution of the dead ) a symbolic washing of the body of the deceased after the Requiem Mass. While certain prayers are being said, the coffin is enraged and sprinkled with holy water. The absolution of the dead is only carried out during the Tridentine Mass. After the Second Vatican Council, the absolution of the dead from the funeral liturgy of the Mass of Paul VI. Away .

Washing and ointments

Washes and ointments (also called Designated initiator ) is a temple ordinance practiced by LDS Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Mormon fundamentalists as part of the Foundation Ceremony of Faith. It is an adult cleansing ritual that is usually performed at least a year after being baptized. Ordinance is administered by the authority of the Melchizedek Priesthood by a minister of the same sex as the participant.

In the ritual, a person is sprinkled with water to symbolically wash off the "blood and sins of this generation". After washing, the person is anointed to become a "king and priest" or a "queen and priestess" in the hereafter.

After washing and ointing, the participant wears the temple robe, religious underwear that the participant should wear throughout their life. (Since 2005, participants in the LDS church version of the ritual have been wearing this garment prior to washing and anointing.) Eventually, the participant is given a "new name" that they are only allowed to reveal under certain conditions in the temple.

Mormons associate the ritual with biblical ablutions and anointings. The temple robe symbolizes the skin of the clothing given to Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, and the "new name" is associated with Revelation 2:17, which states that God will give those who overcome a white stone with a new one Giving names is written on it, known only to those who receive it. "

Remarks

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See also