What is the difference between agriculture and horticulture

Difference Between Agriculture and Horticulture

Agriculture versus horticulture

Although horticulture is generally classified as a subdivision of agriculture that deals with plant gardening, it is actually different from agriculture. The two can easily be related because some of the techniques used are used interchangeably in both sciences, for example many horticultural methods are used in the cultivation of crops, which is an agricultural process. Horticulture is a complete science in itself and a complete industry.

Horticulture is strictly defined as the science that uses specific techniques and methods to cultivate plants, including methods that properly condition the soil for the seeding or planting of tubers. The field of horticulture includes cultivation, plant reproduction, breeding of plants, production of crops, plant physiology as well as biochemistry and genetic engineering. The plants considered are mainly vegetables, trees, flowers, lawns, shrubs, fruits and nuts. Horticulturalists conduct intensive research in their field in order to achieve better crop yields, improve their nutritional value for humans, make plant pests and diseases resistant and adapt to environmental influences. The most notable difference from agriculture is that horticulture is all about allotment gardening and usually in enclosed gardens, although this is not a necessity, while agriculture is done on a large scale with extensive cultivation.

Agriculture is the science of growing food crops and keeping animals for agriculture. It encompasses the entire network of processes that are used to divert the natural flow of the food chain and to divert energy. The natural food web begins with the sun giving plants sunlight, which is then converted into sugar, which is turned into plant food in a process called photosynthesis. Herbivorous animals eat plants for their food and the carnivorous animals eat the herbivores for their food. Dead animals and plants are broken down by bacteria and return to the soil as plant nutrients, and the whole chain repeats itself all over again. Agriculture actually arranges this network so that plants are protected for human consumption, although plants can be specifically bred for consumption by animals (herbivores), such as cattle, which in turn are kept for human consumption. Agriculture can be divided into two categories, conventional and sustainable agriculture. Conventional agriculture is concerned with modifying some environmental factors such as trees, tillage and irrigation, as well as all activities that favor the cultivation of individual crops, especially crops such as wheat, rice and maize. In sustainable agriculture, ecological principles are applied in agriculture. It is also known as agroecology. It aims at sustainable agricultural practices. Planting a variety of crops is such that the agricultural garden will never be bare.


1. In horticulture, only plants are grown, while agriculture deals with the cultivation of crops and animal husbandry.

2. Horticulture can include crops that are not intended for human consumption, while agriculture is primarily focused on crops.

3. Horticulture is practiced on smaller, closed plots, while agriculture is carried out on large areas on a large scale.