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Caption: “Sydow finds nothing to be taxed on!” Printed in: Youth: Münchner illustrated Wochenschrift für Kunst und Leben, Verlag der Münchner “Jugend” 1908, Volume 2, No. 48, p. 1152. Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de. © Ergon - a publishing company in the Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2017 The work including all of its parts is protected by copyright. Any use outside of the copyright law requires the consent of the publisher. This applies in particular to reproductions of any kind, translations, microfilming and storage in electronic systems. Cover design: Jan von Hugo www.ergon-verlag.de ISSN 2198-2414 ISBN 978-3-95650-279-8 Acknowledgments This anthology is the result of an interdisciplinary conference that took place from February 23 to 25, 2015 at the Institute for Religious Studies of University of Leipzig took place. The conference was entitled "Crisis and religious delusion: Religious deviance between psychopathology and liberation around 1900" and was funded by the German Research Foundation. We would like to thank everyone involved who took part in the conference as speakers and guests and who enriched the discussions. Special thanks go to Dr. Heinz Mürmel, who gave a lecture at the conference, but is not represented in this anthology. We would also like to thank Steffi Rüger, Inge Fiedler and Tom Bioly for their invaluable help in organizing and holding the conference. We would like to thank Thomas Müller from the Saxon Psychiatry Museum in Leipzig for the content suggestions and the great thematic city tour (scenes of Leipzig psychiatry history). For the realization of this publication we would like to express our thanks to the Institute of Religious Studies at the University of Leipzig for their generous financial support. We would also like to thank the managing director Dr. Hans-Jürgen Dietrich and the staff from Ergon Verlag for the good cooperation and the editors of the Discurs Religion series Ulrike Brunotte and Jürgen Mohn for the inclusion of our anthology. We would also like to thank Inge Fiedler for editing the manuscripts as part of the publication. The editors Table of contents Lutz Greisiger, Sebastian Schüler and Alexander van der Haven Introduction .................................... .................................................. ......... 9 Methodological and theoretical reflections by Peter Kaiser Healthy or sick madness - cross-cultural perspectives and psychiatric / psychotherapeutic positions in the 21st century .................. ................ 19 Religion and Psychology Stephanie Gripentrog The psychologist and the seer. Religious studies analyzes of the interference between the history of psychology and the history of religion using the example of the seer from Geneva ................................... ................................................. 43 Alexander van der Haven Beyond the Modern Self: Madness and Divine Communion in Fin-de-siècle Germany ....................... 69 Wouter J. Hanegraaff The Great War of the Soul: Divine and Human Madness in Carl Gustav Jung's Liber Novus ................................... .................................................. ....... 101 Art, Literature and Philosophy Gal Hertz The Pathologization of Everyday Life: Panizza's Syphilitic Literature .......................... ......................................... 139 Thomas Hardtke The insane Christ Redivivus - Pathological Christ imitation in psychiatric and literary texts from the turn of the century .......................................... ....... 167 Manuel Stadler Dionysus in psychiatry About some verna Neglected aspects in the reception of Nietzsche's madness .......................................... .................................... 193 Eroticism and Anarchism Katharina Neef The Madness of Eroticism: Perceptions of Nonconformist Sexuality Between Erroneous Individualism, Moral Malfunction and Sheer Madness ........................................ ................................................ 233 Carolin Kosuch anarchic salvation? Fritz Brupbacher's social diagnoses between psychiatry, socialism and literature ......................................... ................................ 251 Authority and Institution Eric J. Engstrom Pastoral Psychiatry and Insane Pastoral Care: Religious Aspects of the Anti -Psychiatry Debates in Germany in the 1890s .......................................... .................................... 277 Bernadett Bigalke "Psychopathic" and "dangerous to the public": The authorities and Ludwig Haeusser ................................................ ......... 309 biographies of the authors ..................................... .................................. 337 INHALTSVERZEICHNIS8 Introduction Lutz Greisiger, Sebastian Schüler and Alexander van der Haven Conception of the volume The aim of this anthology is to examine the topic of “religious madness”, as it was discursively and diagnostically established and negotiated in the decades around 1900, from an interdisciplinary perspective to explore. The editors start from the observation that cases of “religious insanity” have so far either been dealt with primarily from a psychological perspective and described as examples of pathological illnesses or, where “insanity” has been examined sociologically or historically, that the specifically religious aspect of such “cases” is frequent has been overlooked. An interdisciplinary consideration of the topic, on the other hand, aims to work out the interfaces between religion, medicine, psychology and society and their dynamic shifts in boundaries and discursive interweaving. The contributions therefore focus on the one hand on concrete individual examples beyond the well-known and prominent "psychological cases" in the literature and on the other hand discuss systematic questions about the mutual constitution of religious systems of meaning, contemporary crisis rhetorics as well as "scientific" and "pseudoscientific" diagnostics and therapy. A special interest lies in the discourse on “religious and psychological deviance”, which - even if it made the pathologization of “religious insanity” possible in the first place - often at the same time the self-empowerment of the religious subject and its liberation from the newly perceived social constraints of modernity such as for example, promoted urbanization and bureaucratization. A central, overarching thesis of the volume is accordingly that such "abnormality discourses" and their broad reception in science, art and religion reflect the social and individual handling of the ambivalences and opportunities of modernity and this is particularly evident in the example of "religious insanity" Days occurs. "Religious madness" between psychopathology and liberation Industrialization, urbanization, "massing", uprooting and the "disenchantment of the world" are commonly named as the causes of what was experienced in European societies during the decades before and after the First World War as a deep crisis of meaning . This “loss of meaning in modernity” 1 was not least a consequence of the dissolution of traditional religious ties, which in the course of social shifts and political upheavals as well as the spread of secular models of explanation of the world, such as Nietzsche's philosophy, Marxism, psychoanalysis and the rapid developments in Science and technology, commonly predicted. However, the fact that secularization was not (only) the result of these upheavals, but the accompanying creative readjustment and shifting of social and, above all, religious areas of meaning that went with it, is discussed sufficiently and widely in the specialist sciences, especially with reference to the second half of the 20th century and verified empirically.2 The time around the turn of the century, on the other hand, has received less attention in this regard. While religious deviance around 1900 has been gradually coming to terms with for a number of years, 3 the field of “religious insanity” has remained underexposed, especially against the background of the social upheavals and the crisis rhetorics of that time. The term crisis experienced an inflationary use already at the turn of the century, as many contemporaries experienced the upheavals of the epoch with their uncertain outcome as destructive or at least extremely threatening.4 At the same time, talk of “(religious) madness” and corresponding “diagnoses” was also heard “An economic situation that was very well received in the sometimes still young specialist sciences, but also in art and religion. In particular, the religiously deviant individualists and self-proclaimed prophets, who were often certified as "religious insanity" or who sometimes referred to themselves as "lunatics", experimented with new semantics that often found their way into artistic, scientific and social discourses. The investigation of the “religious madness” at the turn of the century therefore yields a picture that more or less directly reflects the social and scientific upheavals and breakthroughs of modernity and locates it between pathologizing and enabling individual liberation. The theses discussed in religious studies, sociology and cultural studies in recent years on the “self-empowerment of the religious 1 Cf. Berger, Peter and Thomas Luckmann (1995): Modernity, Pluralism and Crisis of Meaning. Gutersloh. 2 Cf. Luckmann, Thomas (1967): The Invisible Religion. New York. See also: Knoblauch, Hubert (2009): Popular Religion. Frankfurt / New York. 3 See Linse, Ulrich (1983): Barefoot Prophets. Savior of the twenties. Berlin. Zander, Helmut (2007): Anthroposophy in Germany. Goettingen. Edenheiser, Iris (Ed.) (2010): From Apostles to Zionists. Marburg. 4 Cf. Grunewald, Michel and Uwe Puschner (eds.) (2010): Crisis perception in Germany around 1900. Bern. LUTZ GREISIGER, SEBASTIAN SCHÜLER AND ALEXANDER VAN DER HAVEN10 subject ”5, the“ therapy of the self in modern times ”6, the“ increase in religious-therapeutic practices ”7 or the“ evaporation of religion into the religious ”8 are mostly only for the so-called late modernity accepted and empirically investigated. The present volume therefore wants to place a dedicated focus on this field on an interdisciplinary level between religious studies, history, sociology, literary studies, ethnology, medicine, psychology and art history and ask how social and cultural experiences of crises, religious deviance (especially "religious madness" ) and psychotherapy (or pathology) as elements of discourse at the turn of the century have enabled and shaped each other, and on the one hand actively contributed to the differentiation of religion, science, therapy and society and, on the other hand, favored their delimitation and hybridization processes, from which new areas of meaning emerged . In particular, the normative discourses and their differentiation (and thus relativization) should be examined and, above all, the self-image of deviant actors should be examined more closely: What attributions were used to mark deviant behavior? What role did religious concepts play in deviant behavior? And when was religiously deviant behavior considered pathological? Against the background of such systematic questions, for example, the discourse on “religious madness” and its diverse accompanying discourses can be understood as a form of (collective) therapy for experienced crises of meaning, beyond or before the later institutionalization of professionalized lifestyle offers. “Religious madness” would therefore not only be an alternative to the “Age of Reason” 9, but the object and construction of different “communities of meaning” 10 in which - from religious troublemakers, through psychiatrists or psychoanalysts, social reformer, sociologists or psychologists, to utopians or artists, up to and including those affected by the “madness” - creative creation of meaning and social differentiation was pursued, not least in the conversations and the associated “power effects” 11 between therapists and patients.12 “Religious madness” was accordingly not just a normative external attribution , but was also deliberately used by deviant people as self-attribution in order to legitimize their individual lifestyle. The concept of deviance is 5 Cf. Bochinger, Christoph, Martin Engelbrecht and Winfried Gebhardt (2005): The invisible religion in the visible religion. Stuttgart. 6 See Maasen, Sabine et al. (Ed.) (2011): The Counseled Self: On the Genealogy of Therapeutization in the Long Seventies. Bielefeld. 7 See Höllinger, Franz and Thomas Tripold (2012): Holistic Life. Bielefeld. 8 Cf. Knoblauch, Hubert (1991): The volatilization of religion into the religious. Frankfurt, pp. 7-41. 9 Cf. Foucault, Michel (1973): Wahnsinn und Gesellschaft. Frankfurt. 10 Cf. Berger, Luckmann: Modernity. 11 Cf. Sarasin, Philipp (2001): Irritable machines. Frankfurt. 12 Cf. Foucault: Madness. INTRODUCTION 11 reinterpreted and relativized in the field of discourse. The social deviation becomes an indication of individual liberation and cultural criticism. The ambivalences of religion and psycho-knowledge around 1900 Social crises are always also potential new beginnings, release previously carefully channeled energies and make apparent social constants available. Two areas in which such processes of opening and change take place are 1) religious life and 2) the discourses on subjectivity in psychology: 1) In the course of the scientification and mechanization of the everyday world, parts of traditional beliefs sank into mere “superstition “Down. Simultaneously with the rapid loss of authority of the established religious communities, new religious groups shot up like mushrooms and countless currents known under the collective names life reform and youth movement emerged, whose doctrine and practice often hardly differed from religious movements that seamlessly merged into such or themselves as such.13 Many neo-religious groups also tried to integrate the new scientific findings, to overcome the opposition between science and religion that has emerged in the public discourse and to establish a holistic or monistic worldview.14 Reformed settlements, the most famous of them the commune founded in 1900 on "Monte Verità" near Ascona (Ticino), put such impulses into practice. Wandering prophetic or messianic agitators such as Johannes Guttzeit (1853–1935), Gusto Gräser (1879–1958), Friedrich Muck-Lamberty (1891–1984) or Louis Haeusser (1881–1927) spread religious and / or revolutionary messages and collected some considerable messages Followers around them.15 Whole subcultures formed in search of meaning that seemed to have been lost in the modern world. 2) In the same way as the area of ​​legitimate ways of thinking and living expanded in the religious field and the delimitation of what was recognized as religious was pushed forward by more radical actors, the individual psyche was also reassessed. Psychology as a specialist discipline emerged against the background of a “secularization of feelings” 16 which no longer interpreted psychological deviations (solely) in a Christian-moral way (as a moral evil), but examined them scientifically and interpreted them socially. Deviating modes of perception and behavior were either pathologized and 13 Cf. Barlösius, Eva (1997): Naturgememe Lebensführung. Frankfurt. 14 Cf. Höllinger / Tripold: Holistic Life. 15 See lens: barefoot prophets. 16 Cf. Hitzer, Bettina (2011): The Therapeutization of Emotions. Pp. 17-21. LUTZ GREISIGER, SEBASTIAN SCHÜLER AND ALEXANDER VAN DER HAVEN12 are thus socially excluded or declared as en vogue and thus socially restricted. Both modes of interpretation were used creatively by religiously and psychologically deviant actors to their own advantage. Mental disorders, religious enthusiasm and "hysteria" now appeared to many as legitimate expressions of personality.For example, “neurasthenia” was not only a popular fashionable disease, but, along with its therapy, was part of the self-image of a newly emerging bourgeoisie through revitalizing spa stays.17 In the course of this, the medical-psychological, personal, public, literary and artistic interest in and handling changed with "religious madness". The discursive demarcation between "normality" and "deviation", "mental health" and "madness" liquefied considerably in hardly more than a generation, which is reflected in the changed handling of "psycho-knowledge" among psychologists, psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, physiologists, Lay and last but not least the "sick" themselves. The case of Daniel Paul Schreber (1842–1911) was probably the one most likely to attract public and psychiatric attention, not least because of Sigmund Freud's study of his autobiography. In 1903 Schreber had reported in detail for the first time about his experiences with a "nervous patient" and successfully took legal action against his incapacitation. He argued that his illness was neurophysiological and not psychological in nature.18 At this time, cases of so-called "troublemaker madness" were on record: the rebellion against social authorities, namely the refusal to serve in the military, was punished with admission to psychiatric institutions - for example in the case of Worpsweder Painter and graphic artist Heinrich Vogeler (1872–1942) - or the diagnosis served those affected like the later “Oberdada” Johannes Baader (1875– 1955) as a means of evading the grip of state power. One of the questions that this volume focuses on is therefore the question of who is responsible for “religious insanity”. Which institutions and bodies could certify “religious insanity” and how was this sanctioned or treated? Who were the authorities on the state side, who were the experts and specialists who made the diagnoses? In accordance with the impulse that is so characteristic of modernism, to want to "let art pass into life", the developments mentioned found their articulation not least in the numerous avant-garde movements, from the new transfiguration of Art Nouveau to the pathos of subjective expression in Expressionism to the general attack on the bourgeois world, as led by the various Futurist and Dada groups. Here, too, new forms of (religious) experience of reality and self, the striving for a reform of living conditions, all kinds of deviant 17 Cf. Radkau, Joachim (2000): The age of nervousness. Munich. 18 Cf. Van der Haven, Alexander (2010): A Redeemer with a Mustache. Marburg. INTRODUCTION 13 and “insane” behavior and finally political activism flow into one another. The work "Bildnerei der Geisteskranken" (1922), published by the psychiatrist and art historian Hans Prinzhorn, which documents the paintings of the mentally ill, was particularly well received in artistic circles (today known under the catchphrase Art brut), which shows the shifting of boundaries between madness and creativity and carried normality further into the public eye. Under these conditions, religious and psychological “abnormal” experiences and actions were no longer just pathologized, but also understood as a symptom of more comprehensive sociocultural complexes, especially as a result of the rapid upheavals in all areas of life, and as individual strategies to counter these changes. “Religious madness” was thus an expression of and reaction to converging contemporary crisis discourses and experiences as well as their outlet. The postulated religious and psychological deviations became, as it were, “legitimate” in certain circles. It seemed entirely plausible that, on the one hand, mental disorders were articulated as idiosyncratic religious experiences and, on the other hand, such experiences as psychopathological phenomena required medical or therapeutic attention. The volume is dedicated to this connection between religious and psychological deviations in order to illuminate as comprehensively as possible cultural-historical, conceptual and method (ological) aspects of the as yet little-treated research area using individual examples and systematic comparative studies. While in research up to now religious experiences or statements of psychiatric patients were largely regarded as mere partial aspects of the symptoms of certain clinical pictures and accordingly treated inattentively, this material is examined here for the first time as a source of religious history. A declared aim of the volume is therefore not only to use prominent case studies of "religious madness" and their equally prominent diagnosticians, but also to give space to previously less known "cases" and to look at the everyday lives of patients, psychiatrists and self-declared prophets . The convergences of discourses, interpretative attributions and (self) perceptions, on the basis of which identities, social changes and world views were negotiated and checked for plausibility, must therefore be worked out under historical and sociological signs. The essays collected here thus make an important contribution to the history of religious insanity and religious deviance in the context of psychopathology, therapy and crisis discourses, and in this way combine questions and topics that have hardly been brought into direct connection to date. For religious studies, its specific added value is on the one hand to make a dedicated contribution to the program of a European religion LUTZ GREISIGER, SEBASTIAN SCHÜLER AND ALEXANDER VAN DER HAVEN14 beyond the major denominations and on the other hand to seek the connection and dialogue with other disciplines in order to achieve this To contextualise the topic of “religious madness” more strongly and to sharpen the associated terms. The positioning of “religious madness” in the social discourse should go beyond previous approaches that either asked about the psychological findings or the theological meanings20 of religious experiences. Bibliography Barlösius, Eva: Natural way of life: To the history of the life reform around the turn of the century. Frankfurt am Main 1997. Berger, Peter - Luckmann, Thomas: Modernity, Pluralism and Crisis of Meaning: The Orientation of Modern Man. Gütersloh 1995. Bigalke, Bernadett - Kunert, Jeannine - Neef, Katharina: Europe as a field of religious studies: European history of religion revisited, in: Religion - State - Society Vol. 12 2/2011, pp. 317–342. Bochinger, Christoph - Engelbrecht, Martin - Gebhardt, Winfried: The invisible religion in the visible religion. Stuttgart 2005. Edenheiser, Iris (ed.): From apostles to Zionists: Religious culture in the Leipzig of the empire. Marburg 2010. Foucault, Michel: Madness and Society: A History of Madness in the Age of Reason. Frankfurt 1973. Grunewald, Michel - Puschner, Uwe (ed.): Crisis perception in Germany around 1900. Bern 2010. Henning, Christian - Van Belzen, Jacob (ed.): Crazy about God. For dealing with extraordinary religious phenomena in psychology, psychotherapy and theology. Paderborn 2007. Hitzer, Bettina: The Therapeutization of Emotions: A Story from the 20th Century, in: Der Mensch Vol. 42/43 1 + 2/2011, pp. 17-21. Höllinger, Franz - Tripold, Thomas: Holistic life: the holistic milieu between new spirituality and postmodern wellness culture. Bielefeld 2012. Kippenberg, Hans G. - Rüpke, Jörg - von Stuckrad, Kocku (ed.): European history of religion. A multiple pluralism. Göttingen 2009. 19 See Kippenberg, Hans G., et al. (Ed.) (2009): European History of Religions. Goettingen. Bigalke, Bernadett, et al. (2011): Europe as a field of religious studies. Pp. 317– 342. 20 Cf. Henning, Christian and Jacob van Belzen (eds.) (2007): Crazy about God. Paderborn. INTRODUCTION 15 Knoblauch, Hubert: The volatilization of religion into the religious, in: Luckmann, Thomas (ed.): The invisible religion. Frankfurt 1991, pp. 7-41. Knoblauch, Hubert: Popular Religion: On the Way to a Spiritual Society. Frankfurt, New York 2009. Linse, Ulrich: Barefoot Prophets. Savior of the twenties. Berlin 1983. Luckmann, Thomas: The Invisible Religion. New York. 1967 Maasen, Sabine - Elberfeld, Jens - Eitler, Pascal - TÄNDER, Maik (eds.): The advised self: To the genealogy of the therapy the>