What are methods of making PAN cards

Despite their excellent mechanical properties and low weight, carbon fibers are rarely used in mass applications these days. One of the main reasons is the high price of an average of 20 € / kg due to the time-consuming and energy-intensive production process. A bottleneck is the process of thermal stabilization at high temperatures of up to 300 ° C and long dwell times of up to 100 minutes. This process step accounts for more than 25% of the total production costs. The aim of this work is to reduce the stabilization process time to less than 50 minutes. The basic premise is that no additional investment costs are necessary to implement the development. This minimizes possible barriers to market entry. The benchmark of the mechanical properties is the industry-standard Torayca® T300 fiber type from Toray Industries, Inc. (Tokyo, Japan) with a breaking stress of 3.5 GPa and an elasticity module of 230 GPa. Process profiles are being developed to reduce the stabilization time. which are adapted to the chemical properties of the starting material. The manufacturing process is cascaded and optimized in stages. The observation space is in each case the process parameters temperature, dwell time and stretching. The mechanical properties are maximized by optimizing the carbonization process step. The main result is a minimum stabilization time of 24 minutes with a stress at break of 4.0 GPa and an E-modulus of 235 GPa. The benchmark is exceeded. When implemented, the savings potential in the production process is 4 € / kg. The economic effects are calculated on the basis of the case study offshore wind energy at € 1,240 million.