Who invented the DIY electric generator
Do-it-yourself electric generator: assembly process. DIY Free Energy Generator: Circuit
It is worth considering the definition of " electric generatorMost of them have associations with gasoline or diesel generators built on the basis of an internal combustion engine. Of course, a do-it-yourself electric generator, an integral part of a car, and domestic power plants based on internal combustion engines are the most common industrial designs. An electric generator is per Definition of a device that converts various types of energy into electrical energy.
The energy of the atom at home cannot be used (wrong scale). The energy from the sun, wind, moving water and thermal energy (ICE) uses the forces.
Solar battery - An alternative energy source, not very efficient, but already quite widespread as an auxiliary (backup) system.
It directly generates electricity that is used to charge the battery. Of course, the power plant works during the day and the output depends on the length of the daylight hours. If you look at the insolation map of Russia, you can see that the duration of "sunshine" in half of the territory is from 1700 to 2000 hours per year, and in the southern regions (surprisingly in Yakutsk) it is more than 2000 hours.
The efficiency of such batteries is between 9% and 25% of the specified capacity (depending on the cell type), the most common models with an efficiency of 14-19%. If you do not go into the specifics of batteries, in most cases you will need a plate with an area of 7-10 square meters to produce 1 kW of electricity. m. And now you can multiply the number of hours of sunshine and get a good number of annual savings ...
What else is there good solar panel - easy installation. If you do not mount the system according to the "sunflower" principle with rotation relative to the position of the sun, the scheme of the solar generator is very simple.
DIY power generator: location of a stationary battery
for year-round operation it should be + 15 ° to the latitude, for the summer months it is necessary to subtract 15 ° from the latitude. Although it is possible for small systems to increase the output by up to 50% by tracking the azimuth of the sun, the deviation of the battery from the vertical of the sun beam by no more than 15 ° results in 99% solar radiation. The height of the sun cannot be tracked because it mostly falls within a 30 ° spread range. All of this must be taken into account when installing the battery on a sloping roof, for example.
In addition to stationary systems, you can buy or build a portable solar power plant enough to charge a phone or tablet somewhere in nature.
DIY generator: wind power
Wind is another environmentally friendly form of energy. However, if solar energy is simply converted into electrical energy with the help of photocells (from the point of view of the end user), the wind turbine is a complex technical structure that requires a whole series of works. Indeed, at home it is necessary to redo the industrial installation.
Main components: engine - multiplier (gearbox) - DC generator - battery charge regulator - battery - voltage converter.
A wind turbine or a wind turbine can have a horizontally aligned and a vertical axis. In the first case, it is a well-known (and most commonly used) design with a propeller.
The vertical axis are wind turbines based on the Darier or Savonius rotor. Of the two, according to the second option, it is easier to make an electric generator with your own hands.
DIY generator: each circuit has its own advantages.
The vertical axes are no more than 15% efficient, but they also have a much lower noise level and the Savonius rotor is pretty simple from a wind turbine point of view. In addition, this type is less dependent on wind strength and does not require any alignment with respect to the direction of air flow.
Horizontal axial modifications are more efficient, but require alignment with respect to the direction of the airflow (weather vane or shovel) and protection from high winds. Also, they are quite noisy, not only due to aerodynamic noise, but also due to mechanical noise (after all, the thrust bearing makes noise). Also, to get decent power, you'll need a fairly large screw. Even so, this type is used in almost all industrial designs.
Now about the propeller, its size and the number of blades. A table about the dependence of the system capacity on wind speed, blade size and their number has already been rigorously checked empirically, among other things.
In order not to be confused with fractions, it is worthwhile to bring a simple layout with a wind speed of 4 m (horizontal windmill efficiency 0.35, generator efficiency 0.9, gearbox 0.8):
- diameter 2 m: 2 blades - 10 watts, 3 blades - 15 watts, 4 blades - 20 watts, 6 blades - 30 watts, 8 blades - 40 watts;
- diameter 4 m: 2 blades - 40 watts, 3 blades - 60 watts, 4 blades - 80 watts, 6 blades - approx. 120 watts.
Basically, the relationship is not completely linear with increasing diameter, but provides a general reference point. To get 500 watts at a wind speed of 4 m per second, the diameter of the wind turbine for 2 blades is 14 m, for 3 blades 11.48 m, for 4 blades 9.94.
Why is 4 meters per second chosen for the calculation?
For central Russia, this indicator is usually the upper limit for the average monthly values. For example, the average monthly wind speed for Moscow and the region generally fluctuates around 2.5 m / s in 2012. So if you decide to buy a wind generator, you should first be interested in statistics in the region, and then calculate whether there is a Burden is worth it. However, if materials and components are available, why not make such a device?
Now to the blades - the most important moment. Sail blades (like those from old windmills) are low in efficiency, so aerodynamic blades like an airplane wing are needed.
You can even carve them out of wood, though many artisans will cut a plastic pipe. And here there are nuances.
With a small number of knives, they are more difficult to balance and vibrations are also possible. A wind turbine with 2-3 blades belongs to high speed, the linear speed in strong winds at the end of the blade can reach up to 200 m / s (Makarov bullet pistol - 400 m / s, and the Saint-Etienne model 1835 bullet pistol - 168 m / s)
Plastic is a fragile material that can tear when vibrated at high speeds. Therefore, it is best to use a slower wind turbine with 6 blades and a diameter of 2-3 meters for making a wind generator.
And for their manufacture, take a PVC pipe for pressurized water supply with a wall thickness of 4 mm or more. We cut the sheets, sand the edges and sand to get the necessary aerodynamic properties.
A sheet steel "star" is then made to assemble the propeller.
After installing the blades, the wind turbine must be balanced. To do this, it is installed in a closed room on a vertical base with an axis plane oriented exclusively horizontally, and it is necessary to ensure that the wheel does not turn arbitrarily at any position of the blades, otherwise vibrations will occur.
At the same time as balancing, check the position of the knives in space relative to the vertical. This is done using a fixed reference point at the lower (or upper) point that determines the distance from that point to each sheet when it is opposite it.
Unfortunately, without the use of a factory-made electric generator with your own hands or a DC motor, a wind generator cannot fail.
In theory it can be done, but why ... you can always find and buy a slow DC motor with permanent magnets and voltages up to 100V. You can fit a car, but it requires high RPM and therefore the gearbox. You can choose a cycle motor that has a maximum power of 250 watts at 24 V at 200 rpm (enough with a margin).
After choosing the propeller and generator, it is necessary to make a frame with a reliable design (after all, an "airplane" on a leash).
Then make a swivel assembly attached to the frame that supports the wind turbine and generator with a brush pantograph (if it is possible to choose one from the factory, it is better to use it).
Install a movable side vane with a spring band on the hinge to protect against hurricane winds. In strong winds, the spring force is not sufficient to align the shovel perpendicular to the blades. And the force of the wind simply unfolds the wings in the direction of the wind. At normal flow rate, the spring rotates the blades perpendicular to the blade.
The structure still needs to be assembled: the propeller to the generator, the generator to the bed, the bed to the frame, the spade is attached to it, the frame to the rotating mechanism, the generator to the pantograph, and the wires from it to the electrical part already come from it.
This whole structure is mounted on a mast.
The electrical part of the wind turbine is the simplest: the diode bridge is connected to the battery via the fuses and the voltage regulator and the voltage is further distributed by this. Permanent - to power devices with the corresponding type of current. And to get alternating current, a voltage converter is used.
When it comes to wind energy resources, Russia has a dual position. On the one hand, due to the large total area and the large number of flat areas, there is generally a lot of wind and it is mostly flat. On the other hand, our winds are mostly potentially weak, see Fig. On the third, in sparsely populated areas, the winds are fierce. With this in mind, the task of starting a wind generator in the farm is very relevant. But to decide whether to buy an expensive device or to make it with your own hands, you need to think carefully about what type (and there are many) for what purpose you need to choose.
- KIEV - coefficient of use of wind energy. If a level wind is used to calculate the mechanistic model (see below), this corresponds to the efficiency of the rotor of the wind turbine (APU).
- Efficiency - the efficiency of passage of the APU from the incoming wind to the connections of the power generator or to the amount of water pumped into the tank.
- The minimum working wind speed (MRS) is the speed at which the windmill begins to supply power to the load.
- The maximum permissible wind speed (MDS) is the speed at which the generation of energy stops: The automatic system either switches off the generator or places the rotor in the weather vane, folds it up and hides it, or the rotor itself stops or the APU simply collapses.
- Starting wind speed (CER) - at such a speed, the rotor can spin without load, spin and enter the operating mode, after which the generator can be turned on.
- Negative Takeoff Speed (OSS) - This means that the APU (or wind turbine - wind turbine or wind turbine, wind turbine) needs to be started at any wind speed in order to be handled by an external energy source.
- Starting Torque (Starting Torque) - the ability of a rotor, forcibly choked in the airflow, to produce torque on the shaft.
- Wind turbine (VD) - part of the APU from the rotor to the shaft of the generator or pump or other energy consumer.
- Rotary Wind Generator - APU, which converts wind energy into torque on the PTO shaft by rotating the rotor in the airflow.
- The speed range of the rotor is the difference between MDS and MPC during operation at nominal load.
- Slow-running windmill - in it the linear speed of the parts of the rotor in the current does not significantly exceed the wind speed or below. The dynamic head is converted directly into the pressure of the bucket.
- High Speed Windmill - The linear speed of the blades is significantly (up to 20 times or more) faster than the wind speed, and the rotor creates its own air circulation. The cycle of converting flow energy into traction is complex.
- Slow-running APUs typically have a lower KIEV than high-speed APUs, but have a start time sufficient to spin the generator without disconnecting the load and a zero CER i.e. H. Completely self-starting and usable in the weakest winds.
- Slow speed and speed relative concepts. A domestic wind turbine at 300 rpm can be slow, and powerful APUs of the EuroWind type, which make up the fields of wind turbines, wind parks (see fig.) And whose rotors turn around 10 rpm, will always be faster at such a diameter The linear speed of the blades and their aerodynamics on a large part of the area is quite "airplane", see below.
Which generator is required?
An electrical generator for a household windmill must generate electricity over a wide speed range and have the ability to start itself without automation and external power sources. In the case of using the APU with OSS (wind turbines with spin), which usually have a high KIEV and efficiency, it must also be reversible, i.e. able to work as a motor. With an output of up to 5 kW, electrical machines with permanent magnets based on niobium (super magnets) meet this requirement; on steel or ferrite magnets, no more than 0.5-0.7 kW can be expected.
Note: Asynchronous alternating current generators or collector generators with a non-magnetized stator are completely unsuitable. As the wind strength decreases, they "go out" long before their speed drops on the MPC, and then they will not start themselves.
An excellent "heart" of the APU with a power of 0.3-1-2 kW is obtained from an alternator with an integrated rectifier; there are most of them now. On the one hand, they keep an output voltage of 11.6-14.7 V in a larger speed range without external electronic stabilizers. Second, silicon valves open when the voltage on the winding reaches around 1.4 V and the generator does not “see” the load beforehand. To do this, the generator has to do a pretty good job.
In most cases, the oscillator can be connected directly to the high-speed VD shaft without a gear or belt drive, the speed being determined by selecting the number of blades (see below). The "speed" has little or no starting torque, but without turning off the load, the rotor has enough time to turn before the valves open and the generator supplies power.
Choice against the wind
Before we go for a wind generator, we will go for the local aerology. In greyish greenish (calm) areas of the wind map, at least in a certain sense, only come from a sailing wind turbine (and we'll talk about that later). If you need constant power, you need to add a booster (rectifier with voltage stabilizer), charger, powerful battery and an inverter 12/24/36/48 V DC at 220/380 V 50 Hz AC. Such an economy will cost at least $ 20,000, and it is unlikely that it will be possible to remove long-term power greater than 3-4 kW. In general, in tireless pursuit of alternative energy, it is better to look for another source.
In yellow-green, slightly windy places with a power requirement of up to 2-3 kW, you can put a slow vertical wind generator into operation yourself. They're designed for a few numbers, and there are designs that are almost as good as KIEV and KPI for industrial blades.
If a wind turbine is to be bought for a house, it is better to focus on a windmill with a sail rotor. There are a lot of disputes and not everything is theoretically clear, but they work. In the Russian Federation, “sailing boats” with an output of 1-100 kW are manufactured in Taganrog.
In red, windy regions, the choice depends on the power required. In the range from 0.5 to 1.5 kW, self-made “vertical lines” are justified; 1.5-5 kW - bought "sailing boats". "Vertical" can also be purchased, but costs more than the horizontal APU scheme.And finally, if a wind turbine with an output of 5 kW or more is required, you have to choose between horizontally bought “shovels” or “sailboats”.
Note:Many manufacturers, especially the second series, offer sets of parts from which you can assemble a wind generator with an output of up to 10 kW yourself. Such a set costs 20-50% cheaper than being ready for use. But before buying, you need to carefully study the aerology of the proposed installation site, and then choose the appropriate type and model according to the specifications.
Details of an operating household wind turbine can have a linear velocity in excess of 120 and even 150 m / s, and a piece of solid material weighing 20 g flying at a speed of 100 m / s kills with a "successful “Hit a healthy person on the spot. A 2 mm thick steel or hard plastic plate moving at a speed of 20 m / s cuts it in half.
In addition, most windmills with more than 100 watts of power are quite noisy. Many generate air pressure fluctuations at extremely low frequencies (below 16 Hz) - infrasound. Infrasound is inaudible, but harmful and widespread.
Note:In the late 80s there was a scandal in the usa - what was then the largest wind farm in the country had to be closed. The Indians from the reservation, 200 km from the field of their APU, proved in court that the health problems that became more common after the wind farm went into operation were caused by its infrasound.
For the reasons mentioned above, the APU may be installed at a distance of at least 5 of its height from the nearest residential buildings. In the courtyards of private households, windmills of industrial production, which are properly certified, can be installed. As a rule, APUs cannot be installed on roofs - even with low power, changing mechanical loads occur during operation, which can lead to a resonance of the building structure and its destruction.
Note:the height of the APU is considered to be the highest point of the disc being thrown (for rotor blades) or a geomeric figure (for vertical APU with a rotor on the shaft). If the APU mast or the rotor axis protrudes even higher, the height is calculated according to their top-top position.
Wind, aerodynamics, KIEV
A self-made wind generator follows the same laws of nature as the factory wind generator, which were calculated on the computer. And the do-it-yourselfer must understand the basics of his work very well - most of the time he does not have access to expensive, state-of-the-art materials and technological devices. Aerodynamics APU oh how difficult ...
Wind and Kiev
The so-called APU is used to calculate the series factory. Airplane mechanistic model of the wind. It is based on the following assumptions:
- Wind speed and wind direction are constant within the effective rotor area.
- Air is a continuous medium.
- The effective surface of the rotor corresponds to the swept area.
- The energy of the air flow is purely kinetic.
Under such conditions, the maximum energy per unit volume of air is calculated using the school formula, assuming an air density of 1.29 kg * cu under normal conditions. At a wind speed of 10 m / s, an air cube 65 J and 650 W can be removed from one square of the effective surface of the rotor, with the entire APU having an efficiency of 100%. This is a very simplified approach - everyone knows that the wind is not perfectly even. However, this has to be done to ensure the reproducibility of products - a common task in technology.
The flat model should not be ignored, there is a clear minimum of available wind energy. On the one hand we compress air, on the other hand it is very fluid (the dynamic viscosity is only 17.2 μPa * s). This means that the current can flow around the swept area, reducing the effective surface area and the most commonly observed KIEV. In principle, however, the opposite is also possible: The wind flows down to the rotor and the effective surface is then larger than swept away, and KIEV - more than 1 relative to this for a level wind.
We give two examples. The first is a pleasure, quite heavy, the yacht can not only go against the wind, but also faster than him. The wind refers to the outside; the pennant wind should be even faster, otherwise how does it pull the ship?
The second is a classic in aviation history. Tests of the MIG-19 found that the interceptor, which was a ton heavier than a front-line fighter, accelerated faster. With the same engines in the same glider.
The theorists did not know what to think and seriously questioned the law of energy conservation. In the end, it turned out that the radar cone was sticking out of the air inlet. Air condensation formed from its sock to the side of the hull, as if it were being hurled from the sides towards the engine compressors. Since then, shock waves have come in handy, and the fantastic flight data of modern aircraft is largely due to their skillful use.
The development of aerodynamics, as a rule, is divided into two epochs - before and after N. G. Zhukovsky. His report "About the Adhering Eddy" of November 15, 1905 marks the beginning of a new era in aviation.
Before Zhukovsky they flew set on sails: it was believed that particles of the oncoming current gave all their dynamism to the leading edge of the wing. This made it possible to immediately get rid of the vector magnitude - the moment of impulse - that generated the angry and mostly non-analytical mathematics, to get to much more convenient scalar, purely energetic relationships, and finally to get the calculated pressure field on the carrier plane, that of the present is more or less similar.
Such a mechanistic approach made it possible to develop devices capable of soaring into the air and flying from one place to another without falling to the ground anywhere along the way. However, the desire to increase speed, load capacity and other flight characteristics increasingly revealed the imperfections of the original aerodynamic theory.
Zhukovsky's idea was: along the upper and lower surfaces of the wing, the air goes a different path. From the state of media continuity (vacuum bubbles do not form themselves in the air) it follows that the velocities of the upper and lower flow coming from the trailing edge should be different. Due to the low but finite viscosity of the air, a vortex should form there due to the speed difference.
The vortex rotates, and the law of conservation of momentum, which is just as unchangeable as the law of conservation of energy, also applies to vector quantities, i.e. must take into account the direction of movement. Therefore, an oppositely rotating vortex with the same rotational moment should form directly at the trailing edge. Because of what? Due to the energy generated by the engine.
This meant a revolution for the practice of aviation: By selecting the appropriate wing profile, the attached vortex could be hurled around the wing in the form of a circulation, which increased its lift force. That is, after you've spent some and on high speeds and wing loads - a lot of the engine power - you can create a flow of air around the device that will allow you to get the best flight characteristics.
This made aviation aviation and not part of aviation: now the aircraft itself could create the environment necessary for flight and no longer be a toy for air currents. It just takes a more powerful engine and more and more powerful ...
But the windmill has no engine. On the contrary, it is supposed to extract energy from the wind and deliver it to consumers. And here it turns out - he pulled out his legs, his tail got stuck. They put too little wind energy into their own circuit of the rotor - it will be weak, the thrust of the blades will be little and KIEV and power will be little. Let's give a lot of circulation - the rotor rotates like crazy in weak winds, but the consumers are again little: they have only given off one load, the rotor brakes, the wind blows off the circulation and the rotor starts to turn.
The law of conservation of energy "middle way" only specifies the middle way: 50% of the energy is given to the load, and for the remaining 50% we turn the flow to the optimum. Practice confirms the assumption: if the efficiency of a good pulling propeller is 75-80%, the KIEV of a rotor blade that is just as carefully calculated and blown in the wind tunnel reaches 38-40%, i.e. H. Up to half of what can be achieved with excess energy.
Nowadays aerodynamics, armed with modern math and computers, is increasingly moving away from the inevitable and simplifying models to accurately describe the behavior of a real body in a real flow. And here next to the general line - power, power and power again! - By-ways are found, but they are only promising with a limited amount of energy entering the system.
The well-known alternative aviator Paul McCready created an aircraft with two 16-horsepower chainsaws in the 1980s. Display 360 \ u200b \ u200bkm / h. In addition, the chassis was equipped with three supports and the wheels without panels. None of the McCready devices went online and went into battle, but two - one with piston engines and propellers and the other with jet - circled the globe for the first time in history without ending up at a gas station.
The sails that produced the original wing also had a major impact on the development of the theory. "Live" aerodynamics allowed the yachts with a wind of 8 knots. stand on hydrofoils (see fig.); To accelerate such a whopper to the desired speed with a propeller, a motor with at least 100 hp is required. Racing catamarans with the same wind travel at a speed of around 30 knots. (55 km / h).
There are also completely nontrivial finds. Fans of the rarest and most extreme sports - basic jumping - who wear an aptial protective suit and a protective suit, fly without a motor, maneuver at a speed of more than 200 km / h (right image) and then land smoothly at a pre-selected location. In what fairy tale do people fly alone?
Many of nature's mysteries have been solved; especially the flight of a beetle. He cannot fly in classic aerodynamics. Likewise, the founder of the Stealth F-117 cannot fly into the air with its diamond-shaped wing. But the MIG-29 and Su-27, which can fly tail first for some time, don't fit into an idea at all.
And then why is it imperative to dance from the theory of weak currents with their model of level winds in wind turbines that are not fun and are not an instrument for the destruction of their own kind but a source of vital resources? Is there really no way to move forward?
What can you expect from the classics?
However, the classics should by no means be abandoned. It provides a base without which one cannot climb higher. Just as set theory does not abolish the multiplication table, apples from trees do not fly away from quantum chromodynamics.
So what can you rely on with the classic approach? Let's look at the picture. On the left are the types of rotors; they are shown conditionally. 1 - vertical carousel, 2 - vertical orthogonal (wind turbine); 2-5-blade rotors with different numbers of blades with optimized profiles.
The relative rotor speed is plotted along the horizontal axis to the right, i.e. H. The ratio of the blade's linear speed to the wind speed. Vertical upwards - KIEV. And down - the relative torque again. A single (100%) torque is considered to be one that creates a rotor that is forcibly restrained in the flow with 100% KIEV, i.e. when all of the energy in the current is converted into rotational force.
This approach allows us to draw far-reaching conclusions. For example, the number of blades should not be chosen solely and not so much according to the desired speed: 3 and 4 blades immediately lose a lot of KIEV and torque compared to 2 and 6 blades which work well in roughly the same speed range . And outwardly similar carousels and orthogonal have fundamentally different properties.
In general, rotor blades should be preferred unless extremely low cost, simplicity, maintenance-free self-start without automation are required and it is impossible to climb the mast.
Note: We'll talk about sail rotors in particular - they don't seem to fit in with the classics.
An APU with a vertical axis of rotation has an undeniable advantage for everyday use: your nodes requiring maintenance are concentrated on the ground and do not have to go up. It remains, and not always, a self-aligning thrust bearing, but it is strong and durable. Therefore, when designing a simple wind generator, the choice of options should begin with vertical bars. Their main types are shown in Fig.
In the first position - the simplest, most often called the Savonius rotor. In fact, it was invented by Y. A. and A. A. Voronin in the USSR in 1924, and the Finnish industrialist Sigurd Savonius unscrupulously took advantage of its invention, ignoring the Soviet copyright certificate and starting serial production. But introducing the fate of an invention means a lot, so we will call this windmill the rotor of Voronins-Savonius, or the sun for short, so as not to clean up the past and not to disturb the ashes of the deceased.
The plane is good for the DIY enthusiast, with the exception of the "locomotive" KIEV of 10-18%. However, in the USSR they worked a lot on it, and there are successes. Below we consider an improved design that isn't much more complex but gives the blades a chance of winning, according to KIEV.
Note: two-winged aircraft do not turn, they jerk; 4-lobed is just a little gentler, but it loses a lot in KIEV. For improvement, 4 "hollows" are most often distributed over two floors - one pair of blades underneath and the other pair rotated horizontally by 90 degrees above. KIEV remains and the lateral loads on the mechanics decrease, but the bending loads increase somewhat, and with a wind of more than 25 m / s such an APU on the shaft, i.e. without a bearing tensioned by the ropes over the rotor, can break it the tower.
The next is Daria's rotor; Kiev - up to 20%. It's even easier: the blades consist of a simple rubber band without a profile. The Darier rotor theory is still underdeveloped. It is only clear that it begins to unwind due to the difference in air resistance of the hump and pocket of the tape, and then it moves quickly and forms its own circuit.
The torque is low, and in the starting positions of the rotor parallel and perpendicular to the wind, self-rotation is usually not possible, so the load can only be disconnected from the generator with an odd number of blades (blades?).
The Daria rotor has two other bad properties. First, the thrust vector of the blade describes one complete revolution relative to its aerodynamic focus during rotation, and not evenly, but jerkily. Therefore, the Daria rotor quickly breaks its mechanics even in constant wind.
Second, Daria is not only loud, she screams and screams, even to the point where the tape broke. It does this because of its vibration. And the more blades, the stronger the roar. If so, Daria has two wings and is made of expensive, high-strength, sound-absorbing materials (carbon fiber, mylar). A small airplane can be carried in the middle of the mast shaft.
On pos. 3 - orthogonal vertical rotor with profiled blades. Orthogonal because the wings stick out vertically. The transition from the sun to orthogonality is shown in Fig. 1. to the left.
The mounting angle of the wings relative to the tangent to the circle that touches the aerodynamic focal points of the wings can be positive (in the figure) or negative depending on the wind strength. Sometimes the blades are rotated and fitted with weathercocks that automatically hold the "alpha", but such constructions often break.
The central body (blue in fig) allows you to bring KIEV to almost 50%.In the case of a three-leaf orthogonal, it should have a section in the shape of a triangle with slightly convex sides and rounded corners, and in the case of a larger number of blades, a simple cylinder is sufficient. However, the theory for the orthogonal clearly states the optimal number of blades: there must be exactly 3 of them.
Orthogonal refers to Hochmit OSS, i.e. must be promoted during commissioning and after rest. According to the orthogonal scheme, serial unattended APUs with a power of up to 20 kW are produced.
Helicoid rotor or Gorlov rotor (pos. 4) - a kind of orthogonal, which ensures uniform rotation; orthogonal with straight wings "tears" only slightly weaker than the double-bladed airplane. By bending the blades along the helicoid, you can avoid the loss of KIEV due to their curvature. Although the curved vane rejects part of the flow without using it, it also rakes in the zone of highest linear velocity to make up for the losses. Helicoids are used less often than other windmills because, due to the complexity of manufacturing, they are more expensive than equivalent products.
With 5 poses. - BC type rotor, surrounded by a guide device; its scheme is shown in fig. right. This is rare in industrial design because the costly acquisition of land does not make up for the increase in capacity, and the consumption of materials and the complexity of production are great. But a homemade man who is afraid of work is no longer a master, but a consumer, and if you do not need more than 0.5-1.5 kW, then a "barrel pick" is a treat for him:
- This type of rotor is completely safe, noiseless, vibration-free and can be installed anywhere, including on the playground.
- Bending the "troughs" from galvanizing and welding the frame of pipes is nonsense.
- The rotation is absolutely even, the details of the mechanics can be taken from the cheapest or from the garbage.
- Don't be afraid of hurricanes - too strong a wind cannot push into a "barrel"; A streamlined vortex cocoon appears around it (we will still notice this effect).
- And what is most important: Since the surface of the "Zackbock" is many times larger than that of the inside of the rotor, the KIEV can be a super unit, and the torque is already at 3 m / s on the "cylinder" with a diameter of three meters so that the generator 1 kW with a maximum load like z you say it is better not to flinch.
Video: Lenz wind generator
In the 1960s, E. S. Biryukov patented a carousel APU with 46% KIEV in the USSR. A little later, on the same principle as KIEV, V. Blinov reached 58% of the draft, but there is no data for its examination. And comprehensive tests of the Armed Forces of Ukraine Biryukov were carried out by employees of the magazine "Inventor and Rationalizer". A two-story rotor with a diameter of 0.75 m and a height of 2 m turned an asynchronous generator of 1.2 kW at full power in a fresh wind and held 30 m / s without breaking. Drawings of the Armed Forces of Ukraine Biryukov are shown in Fig. 1.
- galvanized roof rotor;
- self-aligning double row ball bearing;
- cable - 5 mm steel cable;
- shaft axis - a steel pipe with a wall thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm;
- aerodynamic cruise control lever;
- Speed controller sheets - 3-4 mm plywood or sheet plastic;
- traction of a curve regulator;
- the load on the speed controller, its weight determines the speed;
- drive pulley - a bicycle wheel without a tire with a camera;
- thrust bearings - thrust bearings;
- driven pulley - normal generator pulley;
Biryukov on his APU received several copyright certificates at once. First, pay attention to the rotor cut. While accelerating, it acts like a sun and creates a great starting moment. When turning, a cerebral cushion is created in the outer pockets of the blades. From the point of view of the wind, the blades are profiled and the rotor rotates in a high-speed orthogonal shape and the virtual profile changes according to the strength of the wind.
On the other hand, the profiled channel between the knives acts as a central body in the working speed range. As the wind increases, it also creates a cushion of vortices that extends beyond the rotor. The same vertebral cocoon arises as around the APU with a diffuser. The energy for its production is taken from the wind, and there is already not enough energy to break it.
Third, the speed controller is primarily intended for the turbine. From KIEV's point of view, it keeps its speed optimally. And the optimal speed of the generator is guaranteed by the choice of the gear ratio of the mechanics.
Note: After publications in the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1965, the Armed Forces of Ukraine Biryukova fell into disuse. The author did not wait for a response from the authorities. The fate of many Soviet inventions. Some Japanese have become billionaires, regularly read Soviet journals and patent anything that deserves attention.
As I said, after the classic, a horizontal wind generator with a blade rotor is the best. But first he needs a stable wind of at least medium strength. Second, the design for the self-made man is fraught with many pitfalls, which is why the fruit of long hard work often illuminates the toilet, hallway or porch at best and only twists and turns.
Take a closer look according to the schemes in Fig.; Position:
- rotor blades;
- generator bed;
- protective weather vane (hurricane blade);
- swivel unit;
- working weather vane;
- get stuck under the boys.
- protective weather vane;
- working weather vane;
- spring tension regulator.
- collectors with continuous copper ring hoops;
- spring-loaded copper-graphite brushes.
Note:a hurricane protection for a horizontal blade with a diameter of more than 1 m is absolutely necessary, since it is not able to create a vortex cocoon around itself. For smaller sizes, a rotor service life of up to 30 m / s can be achieved with propylene blades.
So where are the spots waiting for us?
Expect more than 150-200 watts of power on the generator shaft with blades of any size cut from thick-walled plastic tube, as is often recommended - the hope of a hopeless amateur. The blade from the pipe (unless it is so thick that it is only used as a workpiece) has a segment profile, i.e. the top or both surfaces are arcs of a circle.
Segment profiles are suitable for incompressible media, for example for airfoils or propeller blades. For gases, however, a blade with a variable profile and variable pitch is required, see example in Fig.; Scope - 2M. It will be a complex and time-consuming product that requires careful computation in full armor of theory and that will be blown in pipe and field tests.
With the rotor nozzle directly on the shaft, the standard bearing will soon break - all the blades in the windmills are not equally stressed. Need an intermediate shaft with a special thrust bearing and mechanical transmission from it to the generator. In large windmills, the thrust bearing is self-aligning in two rows. in the best models - three-stage, Fig. D in Fig. above. As a result, the rotor shaft can not only bend slightly, but also shift easily from one side to the other or up and down.
Note:the development of a support bearing for the EuroWind type APU took around 30 years.
Emergency weather vane
The functional principle is shown in FIG. B. The wind, which gets stronger, presses on the blade, the spring is tensioned, the rotor is crooked, its speed decreases and in the end it becomes parallel to the flow. Everything seems fine, but - it was smooth on paper ...
On a windy day, try keeping the handle parallel to the wind, the lid before boiling, or a large pan. Just be careful - the swirling piece of iron can get caught on the physiognomy, causing it to sag on the nose, cut off the lip, and even cut out the eye.
A level wind is only in theoretical calculations and with sufficient accuracy for practice in wind tunnels. In reality, hurricane-blade windmills are tougher than completely defenseless. It is better to change the distorted blades than to do it all over again. It's a different matter for industrial plants. There the pitch of the shovels is individually monitored and regulated by an automation system controlled by the on-board computer. And they are made of high-performance composite materials, not water pipes.
This is a website that is under regular maintenance. Every electrical engineer knows that the collector must be cleaned, lubricated and adjusted with brushes. And the mast is made of a water pipe. You will not get in, once or twice a month you will have to throw the entire windmill on the ground and then raise it again. How much will he stretch from such "prevention"?
Video: paddle wind generator + solar panel to supply the hut
Mini and Micro
However, as the size of the blade decreases, difficulties fall along the square of the wheel diameter. It is already possible to create a horizontal blade APU yourself for an output of up to 100 watts. The optimum is 6-lobed. With more blades, the diameter of the rotor, which is designed for the same power, will be smaller, but it will be difficult to attach them firmly to the hub. Rotors with less than 6 blades cannot be taken into account: a 2-blade for 100 W requires a rotor with a diameter of 6.34 m and a 4-blade for the same output of 4.5 m the power-to-diameter ratio is expressed as follows:
- 10 W - 1.16 m.
- 20 W - 1.64 m.
- 30 W - 2 m.
- 40 W - 2.32 m.
- 50 W - 2.6 m.
- 60 W - 2.84 m.
- 70 W - 3.08 m.
- 80 W - 3.28 m.
- 90 W - 3.48 m.
- 100 W - 3.68 m.
- 300 W - 6.34 m.
A power of 10-20 watts can be expected. First, a plastic blade with a range of more than 0.8 m cannot withstand wind speeds of more than 20 m / s without additional protective measures. Second, with a knife span of up to 0.8 m, the linear speed of its ends does not exceed the wind speed by more than three times, and the requirements for profiling with a twist are reduced by orders of magnitude. here a “trough” with a segmented profile from a pipe, pos. B in Fig. And 10-20 W supply the tablet with electricity, charge your smartphone or light up the housekeeper.
Next, select the generator. Chinese motor is perfect - wheel hub for e-bikes, pos. 1 in Fig. The engine output is 200-300 watts, but up to 100 watts in generator mode. But is it suitable for us in terms of speed?
The speed index z for 6 blades is 3. The formula for calculating the speed under load is N \ u003d v / l * z * 60, where N is the speed, 1 / min, v is the wind speed and l is the circumference of the rotor. With a wingspan of 0.8 m and a wind of 5 m / s we reach 72 rpm; at 20 m / s - 288 rpm The bicycle wheel is also turning at approximately the same speed. Therefore we will take our 10 to 20 W from a generator that can produce 100. You can put the rotor directly on the shaft.
But here the following problem arises: after spending a lot of work and money, at least on an engine, we got ... a toy! What is 10-20, well, 50 watts? A paddle windmill that even powers a television is impossible at home. Is it possible to buy a ready-to-use mini wind generator and does it cost less? As much as possible and even cheaper, see items 4 and 5. In addition, it will also be mobile. Put on a stump - and use it.
The second option is when a stepper motor is somewhere removed from an old 5 or 8 inch drive, or from a paper or cart drive for an unusable inkjet or dot matrix printer. It can work as a generator, and a rotating can rotor (pos. 6) is easier to mount on it than a construction similar to that shown in pos. 6. 3.
In general, the “shoveling” conclusion is clear: Homemade - more to control the force, but not for real long-term energy efficiency.
Video: the simplest wind generator for lighting a summer house
A sailing wind generator has long been known, but the soft panels of its blades (see fig.) Were made with the advent of high-strength, wear-resistant synthetic fabrics and foils. Multi-bladed windmills with hard sails have spread around the world to power low-power automatic water pumps, but their specifications are even lower than those of carousels.
However, a soft sail like a windmill wing didn't seem so simple. It is not a question of wind resistance (manufacturers do not limit the maximum permissible wind speed): sailors already know that the wind can hardly break the fabric of the Bermuda sail. Rather, the leaf will vomit, or the mast will break, or the entire ship will make a "turn of the overkill". The point is in the energy sector.
Unfortunately no exact test dates can be found. For the installation of a VEU-4.380 / 220.50-Taganrog system with a wind turbine diameter of 5 m, a wind head weight of 160 kg and a speed of up to 40 l / min, "synthetic" dependencies could be created according to user information; they are in fig.
Of course, there cannot be any certainty for 100% certainty, but it can be seen that there is no smell of an aircraft mechanistic model here. Under no circumstances can a 5-meter bike deliver around 1 kW in a flat wind of 3 m / s, reach a power plateau at 7 m / s and then hold it up to a violent storm. Incidentally, the manufacturers claim that the nominal power of 4 kW could be achieved at 3 m / s if, however, according to the results of local aerology studies, they were installed by force.
A quantitative theory is also not found; Developer declarations are incomprehensible. Since people buy and work Taganrog wind turbines, it must be assumed that the declared conical circulation and propulsive effect are not fictitious. At least possible.
Then it turns out that, according to the law of conservation of momentum, a conical vortex should also appear BEFORE the rotor, which, however, expands and slows down. And such a funnel will drive the wind to the rotor, its effective surface will be swept away more and the KIEV - Superunit.
Comprehensive measurements of the pressure field in front of the rotor, even of a household aneroid, could shed light on this question. If it turns out to be higher than side to side, then sailing APUs are actually working like a bug fly.
From the above it is clear that homemade is better to use either vertical lines or sailboats. However, both are very slow and switching to a high speed generator is unnecessary, with additional costs and losses. Is it possible to make an efficient, low-speed generator yourself?
Yes, you can use the so-called. great magnets. The manufacturing process of the main parts is shown in Fig. Coils - each 55 turns of copper wire 1 mm in heat-resistant high-strength enamel insulation, PEMM, PETV, etc. The height of the windings is 9 mm.
Pay attention to the keyways in the rotor halves. They need to be arranged so that the magnets (they are glued to the magnetic core with epoxy or acrylic) hit opposite poles after assembly. "Pancakes" (magnetic cores) should consist of a soft magnetic ferromagnet. Ordinary structural steel will do. The thickness of the pancakes is at least 6 mm.
In fact, it is better to buy magnets with an axial hole and tighten them with screws; Super magnets are attracted with terrible force. For the same reason, a 12 mm high cylindrical spacer is placed on the shaft between the “pancakes”.
The windings that make up the stator sections are made according to the in Fig. The soldered ends should not be stretched, but form loops, otherwise the epoxy resin that is filled with the stator and solidifies can break the wires.
The stator in the mold is cast to a thickness of 10 mm. There is no need to center and balance, the stator does not rotate. The gap between rotor and stator is 1 mm each. The stator in the generator housing must not only be securely fixed against displacement along the axis, but also against rotation; A strong magnetic field with a current in the load pulls it along.
Video: DIY generator for a windmill
And what do we have in the end? The interest in the "shovels" is explained more by their spectacular appearance than by their actual performance in homemade design and with low power. A self-made APU for roundabouts provides "standby" power to charge the car battery or to power a small house.
However, in sailing APUs, it is worth experimenting with masters with a creative streak, especially in mini-performance with a wheel diameter of 1 to 2 m. If the developers' assumptions are correct, then it is possible through the Chinese motor-generator described above remove all of its 200-300 watts from it.
Thank you for your free advice ... And the prices "from companies" are not really expensive, and I think that experienced craftsmen from the hinterland can make generators like yours. And sails, blades or rotors - this is another one Reason for the flight of thoughts of our handy Russian men.
Ivan said (a):
For wind turbines with a vertical axis (position 1) and the "Lenz" variant, an additional detail can be added - an impeller that is exposed to the wind and covers its useless side (in the direction of the wind). This means that the wind will not brake the blade, but this "canvas". Staging against the wind with the "stern", which is behind the windmill itself below and above the blades (ridges). I read an article and an idea was born.
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To build a private home or vacation home, a caretaker may need an autonomous source of electrical power that can be purchased from a store or assembled from available parts.
A self-made generator can be operated with the energy of petrol, gas or diesel. To do this, it must be connected to the motor via a shock absorber, which ensures that the rotor rotates evenly.
For example, if the local environmental conditions allow for frequent winds or if there is a source of running water nearby, you can create a wind turbine or hydraulic turbine and connect it to a three-phase asynchronous motor to generate electricity.
Thanks to such a device, you will have a constantly working alternative power source. It will reduce energy consumption from state networks and allow savings in payment.
In some cases, it is permissible to rotate an electric motor with a single-phase voltage and transfer torque to an emergency generator to create its own three-phase symmetrical network.
Choosing an induction motor for a generator by design and features
The basis of a self-made generator is an asynchronous three-phase motor with:
The magnetic circuits of the stator and rotor consist of insulated sheets of electrical steel in which grooves are made to accommodate the winding wires.
Three separate stator windings can be connected at the factory according to the scheme:
Your results are connected in the terminal box and connected with jumpers. Mount the power cord here.
In some cases, you can connect the wires and cables in other ways.
Symmetrical voltages are applied to each phase of the induction motor, the angle of which is shifted by a third of the circle. They form currents in the windings.
These quantities are expediently expressed in vector form.
Design features of rotors
Phase rotor motors
They are supplied with a winding modeled on the stator, and the conclusions from each are connected to slip rings that make electrical contact with the start-up and adjustment circuit via pressure brushes.
This construction is quite complex to manufacture and expensive to produce. It requires regular work monitoring and skilled service. For these reasons, it does not make sense to use it in such a design for an emergency power generator.
However, if there is a similar motor and it has no other application, then it is possible to short the conclusions of each winding (those ends that are connected to the rings) together. In this way the phase rotor becomes a cage. The connection can be made according to one of the following schemes.
Squirrel cage motors
Aluminum is poured into the grooves of the rotor magnetic circuit. The winding is made in the form of a rotating squirrel cage (for which it was given an additional name) with short bridging rings on the short ends.
This is the simplest motor scheme with no moving contacts. Because of this, it works for a long time without the intervention of electricians and is characterized by increased reliability. It is recommended to use it to create a homemade generator.
Designations on the motor housing
In order for a homemade generator to work reliably, you need to pay attention to the following:
- , Characterization of the quality of housing protection against environmental influences;
- power consumption;
- number of revolutions;
- development connection plan;
- permissible load currents;
- Efficiency and cosine φ.
The functional principle of an asynchronous motor as a generator
Their design is based on the reversibility method of an electrical machine. If the rotor is forced to rotate the rotor at the rated speed with the line voltage switched off, EMF will be induced in the stator winding due to the presence of residual magnetic field energy.
It remains only to connect a bank of capacitors of the appropriate nominal power to the windings, and a capacitive conducting current with the character of a magnetizing current will flow through them.
So that the generator excites itself and a symmetrical system of three-phase voltages is formed on the windings, the capacitor capacitance must be selected to be greater than a certain critical value. In addition to its value, the motor design naturally affects the output power.
For the normal generation of three-phase current with a frequency of 50 Hz, it is necessary to keep the rotor speed above the asynchronous component by the slip value S, which is within S \ u003d 2 \ u003d 10%. It must be kept at the synchronous frequency level.
The deviation of the sine curve from the standard frequency value has a negative effect on the operation of devices with electric motors: saws, planers, various machines and transformers. This has practically no effect on resistive loads with heating elements and incandescent lamps.
In practice, all common methods for connecting the stator windings of an induction motor are used. Choosing one of them creates different conditions for the operation of the device and creates a voltage with certain values.
A popular option for connecting capacitors
The circuit diagram for an asynchronous motor with star winding for operation as a three-phase mains generator has a standard form.
Asynchronous generator circuit with capacitors connected to two windings
This option is very popular. You can use it to supply three consumer groups with power from two windings:
- two voltage of 220 volts;
- one is 380.
The working and starting capacitors are connected to the circuit via separate switches.
Based on the same scheme, you can make a homemade generator using capacitors connected to one winding of an induction motor.
When assembling the stator windings according to the star scheme, the generator generates a three-phase voltage of 380 volts. If you convert them to a triangle - 220.
The three diagrams shown above are basic, but not the only ones. Based on these, other connection methods can be created.
Calculation of the generator characteristics based on the engine power and the capacitance of the capacitor
To create normal working conditions of an electrical machine, it is necessary to observe the equality of its rated voltage and power in the modes of operation of the generator and the electric motor.
For this purpose, the capacitance of the capacitors is chosen taking into account the reactive power Q generated by them at different loads. Its value is calculated from the expression:
Q \ u003d 2π ≤ f ≤ C ≤ U 2
If you know the motor power, you can use this formula to calculate the capacitance of the capacitor bank to ensure full load:
C \ u003d Q / 2π ≤ f ≤ U 2
However, the operating mode of the generator should be taken into account. When idling, the windings are unnecessarily loaded and heated by capacitors. This leads to large energy losses and overheating of the structure.
To eliminate this phenomenon, capacitors are switched in stages, the number of which depends on the applied load. To simplify the selection of capacitors for starting an induction motor in generator mode, a special table has been created.
|Generator power (kVA)||Full load mode||Sleep mode|
|cos φ \ u003d 0.8||cos φ \ u003d 1||Q (kVar)||C (microfarad)|
|Q (kVar)||C (microfarad)||Q (kVar)||C (microfarad)|
For use as part of a capacitive battery, starter capacitors of the K78-17 series and the like with an operating voltage of 400 volts or more are well suited. It is perfectly acceptable to replace them with metal-based counterparts with the appropriate ratings. They need to be assembled in parallel.
Using models of electrolytic capacitors to work in the circuits of an asynchronous generator is not worth it. They are designed for DC circuits and fail quickly if they pass a sinusoid that changes direction.
There is a special scheme for their connection for such purposes, when each half-wave is directed to its arrangement by diodes. But it's pretty complicated.
The stand-alone device of the power plant should fully provide the work equipment and be carried out by a single module, including a mounted electrical panel with devices:
- measurements - using a voltmeter to 500 volts and a frequency meter;
- load switching - three switches (a common supply voltage from the generator to the consumer circuit, and the other two connect capacitors);
- protection -, eliminating the consequences of short circuits or overloads and) saving workers from the breakdown of the insulation and the potential of the phase on the housing.
Main power scheme redundancy
To create a self-made generator, it is necessary to ensure its compatibility with the grounding circuit of the work equipment. When working autonomously, it must be reliably connected.
If the power plant was created to provide backup power to equipment operated from the state network, it should be used when the power is removed from the line, and when it is restored, it should be stopped. For this purpose, it is sufficient to install a circuit breaker that controls all phases at the same time, or to connect a complex automation system to turn on the emergency power supply.
There is an increased risk of personal injury with a 380 volt circuit. It is used in extreme cases when the phase value of 220 is not possible.
Such modes create excessive heating of the windings, with the subsequent destruction of the insulation. They arise when the currents flowing through the windings are exceeded by:
- wrong choice of capacitors;
- Connect consumers with increased performance.
In the first case, it is necessary to carefully monitor the thermal regime during idling. In the event of excessive heating, the capacitance of the capacitors must be adjusted.
Functions for connecting consumers
The total output of a three-phase generator consists of three parts, which are generated in each phase, which corresponds to 1/3 of the total output. The current flowing through a winding should not exceed the nominal value. This must be taken into account when connecting consumers in order to distribute them evenly in phases.
If a homemade generator is designed to operate on two phases, it cannot safely produce more than 2/3 of the total, and if only one phase is involved, then only 1/3.
A frequency meter enables this display to be monitored. If it was not built into the construction of a homemade generator, then you can use the indirect method: when idling, the output voltage exceeds the rated voltage 380/220 by 4 ÷ 6% at a frequency of 50 Hz.
One of the ways to make a homemade generator from an induction motor and its possibilities are shown in the video by the owners of the channel Maria and Alexander Kostenko.
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Would you like to get cheap electricity with wind power? I am sure that yes. Then the question arises, how to build an electric generator with your own hands. To complete the task, you should make a plan for its development, namely:
- prepare the materials from which the generator parts will be made;
- make a drawing that you can use to build an electric generator.
- leaf through physics textbooks for a deeper understanding of electrical engineering.
The installation of a windmill, a wind power system, meets these goals. This energy-saving mechanism is sufficient, for example, to illuminate the space of a small building or to water the garden. Savings in kilowatt hours are obvious.
Components for wind turbines
The mechanism of this "mill" consists of four halves of a hollow cylinder, which are offset to the side of the common axis. On the one hand, an aerodynamic offset is noticeable. The air flow circulating over the axis tends to slide down as if. This happens in the convex part of one of the half cylinders. The other has a concave gap to the wind and some air resistance. With the movement of the wind, both halves swing and change places. This creates an acceleration of the mechanism and the cylindrical drum rotates fairly quickly.
How does this circuit differ from a propeller?
An electric generator, made in the form of a propeller with his own hands, must be made very accurately. The above scheme is very convenient in design and installation. In addition, the performance of such a system is equivalent to that of a propeller with three blades with a diameter of up to 2.5 m.Cylinders provide sufficient torque. Another advantage of the mill is the lack of a current collecting mechanism.
DIY electric generator.Device detail
As described above, the device is a four-blade drum. For the production of drum halves, plywood, plastic sheets or the wall thickness of the rotor should not be large, this should be taken into account when producing blanks. The lighter the walls, the less the bearings rub, ie the air resistance during transport is negligible.
Before Using Materials ...
In the case of roof bars, the vertical slats must be reinforced. To do this, a reinforced branch a finger's thickness is placed in the sides of the drum.
If the parts of the wind turbine are made of plywood, it is important to impregnate them with hot linseed oil. The convex sides of the blades can be made of lightweight plastic or metal. In the latter case, all joints must be carefully painted over with dense oil paint. Wood is also suitable for design.
What do the crosses that connect the blades do?
To combine the blades in the rotor you will need a cross. It is better to make it from iron strips with a cross section of 5 x 60 mm or from wooden blanks about 25 mm thick and 80 mm wide. On the edges of the blades with a slight indentation, drill holes should be drilled to secure them. The entire structure must be assembled on the axis.
What do you do an axis
A homemade power generator needs to be repaired on some basis. This base is a steel axle with a diameter of 30 mm. Before assembling the axle, it is necessary to find ball bearings that are suitable for the diameter of the axle. A steel bar is then welded into it and, if the attachments of the blades are made of wood, glued to the axis and at the same time clamped with M12 steel bolts in the holes drilled on the bar and on the tube. Observe the distance of all the blades from the axis. The approximate value is 150 mm. The distance must be the same everywhere.
The last part of the device is the bed. How do you
Welding several metal corners or wood is suitable. When the bed is made, bearings can be fitted. The main thing is that they stand straight, without distortion.Insert the connecting straps of different diameters at their end into the lower part of the axle and hook them into the pulley. It remains to connect the ends of the belt to a generator, for example from a car. The design is ready.
The problem with the electrical networks in our country is not only that energy is becoming more and more expensive, but also that it is lacking in some areas. In some remote villages and towns, a centralized power supply is so rare that a generator is needed.
How to be
Of course, the modern market has hundreds of such models that can power even a small village. The only difficulty is that their cost is sometimes higher than the average salary for a few months. Can you build an electric generator with your own hands?
Generator based on an old chainsaw
Reserve right now that we are only considering options with maximum "return" as it is not worth building a homemade generator to power a pair of lightbulbs. It is best to construct a device based on a motor from a chainsaw, as it will easily provide power to a medium-sized country house. Before making a power generator, calculate the power consumption of all of your devices.
Which model to take
Given the prevalence of old models of sawing, it is best to get the old "friendship" or "Urals".
Where can I get the generator?
If you feel like a descendant of the legendary Lefty, you can cast all the details yourself and do the winding yourself. However, all of this is so complicated that a homemade power generator is simply unprofitable. It is best to use a KAMAZ generator or an agricultural machine.
If you take an old household saw, its motor can even pull 2-3 kW. But optimal - no more than 1.5 kW. The choice of a car generator is good in that it will maintain optimal voltage even with a difference in engine speed of 1-5,000 per minute.
Since it is impossible to use a regular 220V power generator for the reasons (revolutions) mentioned above, you will need to attach a converter to your design with your own hands. Look out for the "MAP Energy" inverter, which is easy to find on the open market.
How do i connect
The best solution is to make a special interchangeable unit that can be quickly connected to the saw and just as quickly disassembled. In this case, it is easy to take such a device with you on a hike, since its multifunctionality will be useful for you. Either an old saw bar or a temporary bracket is used for fastening. The optimal connection is a belt connection as the chain transmission is too loud and even requires lubrication. The belt must be chosen so that the generator (even with your hands) is as close as possible to the saw.
We connect the generator output (with a 30-40 ampere ammeter) and a switch to a battery suitable for the capacity and connect it to a voltage converter. It is very desirable to include a voltmeter in this circuit, otherwise it is easy to burn valuable equipment due to some malfunction.
How to use
Since you don't have cruise control, you'll need to override it to make the motor growl slightly. This of course increases the fuel consumption slightly. To facilitate the operation of the mechanism, a high capacity battery is needed that will take most of the load during peak periods. This stability not only has a positive effect on the output voltage, but also on the entire mechanism.
So it is quite realistic to make an electric generator yourself.
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