What are the top rated life skills
Addiction prevention. Health promotion. Life skills. A handout for teachers. Addiction prevention information service
1 ADDICTION PREVENTION Life skills models Special issue Addiction prevention Health promotion Life skills A handout for teachers for information on addiction prevention in Baden-Württemberg Information service on addiction prevention Issue 15 STUTTGART STATE INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATION AND TEACHING
2 IMPRINT EDITOR LANDESINSTITUT FOR EDUCATION AND TEACHING STUTTGART ROTEBÜHLSTR STUTTGART EDITORIAL EDITORIAL HANS-JOACHIM BERLIN ROBERT-MAYER-SCHULE, STUTTGART GABRIELE FRICK-KERBER GHWITERSCHULTCHULT-KERBER-GHWITERSCHULT-LUTR-BARTER / POST-STOLF-SCHULT-07: Stuttgart: 07: ROTAMSTE BÜHLSTR / STOLF-FA-GNE11: SCHNEIDER OBERSCHULAMT STUTTGART BREITSCHEIDSTR STUTTGART E. KURZ & CO., Druck und Medientechnik GmbH KERNERSTR STUTTGART COPYRIGHT STATE INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATION AND TEACHING STUTTGART STUTTGART 2004
3 Table of contents Page 1. FOREWORD 1.1 Foreword by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport Preliminary remark by the editorial staff on this issue 2 2. FOCAL TOPIC 2.1 Gabriele Frick-Kerber / Rolf Schneider, Promotion of Life Skills in the New Education Plans 2004 in Baden-Württemberg Anneke Bühler / Eva Maiwald, Effectiveness of Addiction Preventive Life Skills Programs - Results of German Evaluation Studies Well-known Models for Promoting Life Skills in Children and Adolescents for Addiction and Violence Prevention Andrea Dokter, Thomas Duprée, Daniel Kraus, Health Promotion and Addiction Prevention in Primary School: Class Martin Asshauer, Fit and Strong for Life Prevention of Smoking by teaching psychosocial skills Dr. Gudrun Wiborg, becoming independent: personality development, health promotion, life skills, addiction and violence prevention in the Dr. Anneke Bühler, ALF Growing up with life skills Helmut Bier, Lions Quest Program Growing up OUT OF THE SCHOOLS - FOR THE SCHOOLS 3.1 Dr. Arnold Hinz, The Strong Project in Life. Gender equitable health promotion. Development, implementation and evaluation of a teaching unit in class Andreas Robra, Echt stark - a primary school project for strong kids Gabriele Bouwhuis, Pure Experience - a project for addiction prevention and health promotion at Mannheim schools Gudrun Pelzer-Knoll, making children strong - a life skills program for children Margit van Hair, life skills promotion at secondary schools Marcus Kohne, circus education and addiction prevention Michael Kienast, Project Adventure (PA) - an experiential life skills program for schools LITERATURE - AND MATERIAL INFORMATION 4.1 Useful websites Selected books on addiction prevention MISCELLANEOUS 5.1 Hölderlinops Gymnasium Stuttgart Berthold white, sweet and high-proof spirits producers discover the youth 121 content
4 Information Service for Addiction Prevention No. Foreword by the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport Baden-Württemberg Promotion of life skills is the subject of this addiction information: "LIONS-Quest", "Class 2000", "Becoming independent" are some of these programs that are being developed to support adults in imparting personal and social skills to children - that is, to make children strong. Strong children is the synonym for successful preventive work - in the area of addiction and violence prevention, in general in the area of upbringing that prevents undesirable developments in the behavior of children and adolescents. The 2004 education plans now specify even more clearly that schools should impart both professional competence and an equally high level of personal and social competence. Schools should give pupils space for self-discovery. The children should develop a personality that can survive in life, they should develop motivation and efficiency on the basis of a sense of responsibility and tolerance. The pupils should also learn that life is not only and not primarily about self-realization, but that cooperation, mutual help, tolerance and the ability to deal with conflict are just as important social skills. The models described in this booklet show schools many and different ways in which the practice of personal and social skills can be approached at different age groups. I therefore recommend this booklet not only to addiction prevention teachers, but also to all teachers, so that they can be taken into account when drawing up school curricula and structuring lessons. Dr. Annette Schavan MdL Minister for Culture, Youth and Sport 1.1 Foreword 1
5 2 1.2 About this issue Preliminary remark by the editors The main task of school addiction prevention is primary prevention, which helps healthy children stay healthy and develop their personalities in a positive way. The Ministry for Culture, Youth and Sport Baden-Württemberg therefore formulates an administrative regulation for addiction prevention in schools: Addiction prevention is any education that is aimed at developing life-affirming, self-confident, independent and resilient young people and paving the way for them through positive basic attitudes to pave the way for the future. The Federal Center for Health Education (BzgA) summarizes this idea in the motto of its campaign that has been running for several years: Make children strong! With the addiction prevention campaign to make children strong, the BZgA addresses all adults who are responsible for children and adolescents. The aim of the campaign is to strengthen the self-confidence and self-esteem of adolescents and to promote their conflict and communication skills. Adolescents should be able to say no to addictive substances from a strong, self-confident position. (Project description on the Internet) The promotion of life skills is the main topic of this information service. In the 2004 reform of the educational plan in Baden-Württemberg, the idea of acquiring personal, social, technical and methodological skills moved into the focus of school education and became the main goal of school education. The schools in Baden-Württemberg are currently dealing with the question of how they can approach this competence training for children and young people beyond the technical content. Addiction prevention can provide its many years of experience here. Various programs to promote life skills are offered across Germany. Such models are presented in Chapter 2 of this booklet. Their addiction and violence preventive effect is proven by scientific monitoring and evaluation in studies. The target groups of the models presented here range from grades 1-2 to adolescents. What all programs have in common is that they are designed for the long term and that the contents of the curriculum build on one another. There are also a number of small-scale activities promoting life skills in schools, some of which are presented as examples. Here, too, one of the criteria for the selection was that the campaigns were not one-off, but that work should be carried out continuously with the involvement of various groups involved in school life and networked with external experts. In times of upheaval in educational policy to improve school quality and effectiveness, the models presented in the booklet for promoting life skills can be useful and schools are requested to make use of these experiences when developing their school curricula
6 2.1 Gabriele Frick-Kerber / Rolf Schneider Promotion of life skills in the new 2004 education plans in Baden-Württemberg School addiction prevention - then and now Addiction prevention in schools in Baden-Württemberg has undergone a paradigm shift in recent years. In the 1980s, when it came to addiction prevention, the focus was often narrowed on drug prophylaxis; this was carried out by shock-like deterrence from the consequences of drug use or addiction. Today it is known that these concepts are unsuccessful in primary prevention or even have the opposite effect of what they are intended. Years ago, a study by the Munich Institute for Therapy Research on behalf of the Federal Center for Health Education evaluated the concepts of pure information about drugs, especially when it is associated with deterring their consequences, as "in the best case ineffective". (cf. Jutta Künzel-Böhmer, Gerhard Bühringer, Teresa Janik-Konecy (IFT-Munich), Expertise on Primary Prevention of Substance Abuse, Cologne 1992) Today school-based addiction prevention is part of health education and health promotion. It focuses on acquiring the skills needed to lead a healthy life. The focus is not so much on the disease-causing risks, but on the factors that can promote health and offer protection against the dangers of addiction. The question is therefore not "What makes you sick?", But "What maintains and promotes health?". Addiction prevention is based on the idea of "infectious health". In health education, health promotion and addiction prevention approach the target group of children and adolescents from two sides. Addiction prevention aims to reduce the risk of addictions and thus of health risks, while health promotion aims to improve health opportunities. Primary prevention in schools aims to contribute to healthy children staying healthy. In the past: today: Drug education and deterrence Information and education about addiction and drugs Cause-oriented addiction prevention + development and health promotion The results of evaluation research on addiction prevention show that prevention programs as presented in this issue are successful if they are theoretically sound and methodologically qualified and are comprehensive. Prevention programs that are interactive, intensive and continuous can delay the start of the consumption of psychoactive substances and, under optimal conditions, also achieve a change in consumer behavior. 2.1 Education plan reform
7 The legal framework for school addiction prevention in Baden-Württemberg The change in school addiction prevention described above is also reflected in the decrees on the legal basis of which schools in Baden-Württemberg operate addiction prevention. Only 20 years ago, the title of the relevant administrative regulation was the treatment of drug problems in schools; addiction prevention was drug prophylaxis. Ten years later, the administrative regulation was called Addiction Prevention in Schools, and a change was made in terms of content towards cause-oriented prevention and health promotion. In the decree currently in force in December 2000, it says: Addiction prevention therefore goes far beyond imparting knowledge in the relevant subjects. Addiction prevention is any upbringing that is geared towards developing life-affirming, self-confident, independent and resilient young people and paving the way for the future for them through positive basic attitudes. Addiction prevention is therefore a task for every teacher. [Administrative regulation dated December 1, 2000, AZ: / 760, Addiction prevention in schools.] Aims of school addiction prevention The aim of addiction prevention is therefore to help children and adolescents develop protective factors against the most diverse dangers, that their mental immune system against the Addiction is strengthened and that they develop a weatherproof personality. Protective factors are parts of the personality as well as certain areas of the social environment. They enable a positive mastery of age-appropriate development tasks and stressful situations. Holistic addiction prevention in school does not neglect either the parenting behavior or the general conditions. Holistic addiction prevention: Personality development Framework conditions Parenting behavior - Self-confidence / independence / self-respect - Ability to enjoy / enjoy life - Ability to deal with conflict - Dealing with feelings - Frustration tolerance - Stress management - Learning and school climate - Open school - School as a living space and experience - School management and school development - Attitude / attitude of the the school management on prevention -Empathy -Boundaries -Free spaces -realistic role models (parents, teachers ...) -Encouragement -Tolerance 2.1 Education plan reform
8 Education plan reform 2004 With the formulation of educational standards that contain a core curriculum and the task of designing their own school curriculum for schools, the educational system is no longer primarily controlled through detailed specifications, but rather through the evaluation of teaching results that are based on educational standards . The education plan gives schools and teachers a wide range of design options within their own school curriculum. As before, the new curricula do not only contain requirements with regard to knowledge content. The educational standards with core curriculum describe the competencies and knowledge of the pupils in personal, social, methodological and technical terms at the end of different sections of their school career (in grammar school e.g. in grades 6, 8 and 10) The above-mentioned goals of holistic addiction prevention for the personal development of children and adolescents are expressly included in the new education plans in the competencies. That addiction prevention is the task of every teacher, as the cited administrative regulation on addiction prevention in schools demands, is stated in the new education plans Acquisition of competencies As the tripartite school system is retained, the educational standards describe a level of expectation typical of the school type can. The conceptual delimitations of personal, social, methodological and technical competence do not stand for a side by side, but must be seen in a togetherness and in their interactions. The new education plans are based on an expanded concept of learning. In addition to other authors, it is above all the merit of Heinz Klippert 1 to have pointed out that these various competencies are not acquired automatically in the classroom, but that special learning processes are required for them. The training and development of competencies means above all a departure from the pure knowledge school or knowledge acquisition school. Klippert's expanded concept of learning includes, in addition to content-related learning, also methodical-strategic, social-communicative and affective learning. The following diagram clearly shows the various competencies in connection with these special learning processes. 1 Heinz Klippert, method training, Weinheim / Basel, educational plan reform
9 Content-related learning, e.g. Learning terms, facts Understanding phenomena Recognizing relationships, assessing measures ... Technical competence Technical knowledge Subject-related skills through attitudes promoted by the subject Affective-personality-enhancing learning, e.g. Developing self-confidence Having fun with a topic Developing identification and commitment Building value attitudes ... Social skills Empathy Communication and conflicting skills Cooperation and teamwork Openness, acceptance, tolerance Solidarity ... Action skills Personal skills Self-organization, perseverance, commitment Self-perception a Self-assessment Self-acceptance and self-confidence Decision-making ability Ethical sense of responsibility Social-communicative learning, e.g. Discussing, listening, giving reasons, arguing, conducting conversations, cooperating, integrating, presenting ... Methodological skills Work, learning and time organization Methods for collecting information Working techniques for information processing and presentation of results Use of learning aids and memory aids Use of specialist working methods Creative problem-solving strategies ... Methodical- strategic learning, e.g. Planning, deciding, organizing, looking up, excerpting, structuring, visualizing, shaping, keeping order ... Figure: Learning under an expanded concept of education (draft E. REINERT using H. KLIPPERT (1994) and H. PAUL (1998) 2 The personal and social Competencies that the students should acquire according to the new curricula are congruent with the goals of addiction prevention and correspond to the ideas of a health promoting school. The concept of the health promoting school was developed following the publication of the Ottawa Charter for the health promotion of the WHO in the year With the European network of health promoting schools, the EC Commission and the Council of Europe support an international cooperation for the development of convincing practical models he development of cooperative efforts at the national level.A health-promoting school attaches great importance to the individual support of the pupils, it operates social co-education, works across disciplines and is project-oriented, sees school as a place to live and social meeting place and opens up to the outside world, i.e. it is community-oriented. 2 from: Edgar Reinert / Klaus Zimmermann, methodological competence in the classroom ?! - A workshop report on school development at the Wilhelm-Hauff-Realschule Pfullingen, in: Schule im Blickpunkt 1999/2000, Heft 6, S Bildungsplanreform
10 The fields of action of the health promoting school were already described in 1988 and there is a large number of similarities with the goals and contents of the 2004 educational plan reform in Baden-Württemberg. Schoolchildren in school decisions and development plans Participation of the schoolchildren in internal school regulations and decisions Expansion of extracurricular school sports Expansion of school life, festivals and celebrations Documentation and exhibitions Reinforcement of motivations and interests Promotion of the perception of the everyday environment Development of new suggestions, learning objects, offers Promotion of activity and creativity Mediation of authentic experiences Country programs, talent search, talent promotion, health education Contacts with companies, institutions, social groups Projects to research one's own living environment (social, historical, ecological ...) perception of (inter) - cultural, political, social Opportunities for dealing with cultural and social life in school Encounters with (inter) cultural, artistic, political traditions and developments Necessity for independence to self-productions Linking extracurricular offers and activities with school-based learning Contact between schools (e.g. school sports encounters) School as a neighborhood school Social, cultural, musical, leisure-oriented meeting place for all School as a forum for discussion of social, political, cultural ... developments in the community School as a partner of clubs, groups, initiatives School as a partner of sports clubs (fields of action and guiding principles Health promoting school, from: Shaping school life and opening schools. Project description, Düsseldorf 1988, quoted from: E. Göpel, Development of Quality Features for Health Promoting Schools, in: Prevention 3/1993, p. 110) As with the concept of health promoting schools The 2004 reform of the education plan in Baden-Wuerttemberg brings with it a greater involvement of parents and the community through the formation of subject associations and the opening up of learning to communities, companies and businesses. A new teaching culture will develop from this, with a focus on the acquisition of comprehensive skills. The opening of the school to the social environment will allow the pupils to integrate themselves even more strongly than before in their school and to see the school not only as a place of learning, but as a place to live. 2.1 Education plan reform
11 The attachment to school can be seen as a main protective factor in prevention. In an extremely extensive study (Resnick et. Al., 1997), students in the age group years were asked in individual interviews about their experiences with eight different problem areas that are associated with high health risks for young people (high risk areas). These areas were: violence, suicide attempts, psychological crises, alcohol consumption, weed, smoking, sexual behavior and (early) pregnancy. The adolescents were asked about a variety of factors that the researchers believe could be effective as protective factors against the dangers of this risky behavior. Only two protective factors turned out to be highly effective against the majority of the risky behaviors mentioned (with the exception of early pregnancy): - One factor was being connected to and being part of the family (connectedness to family): the feeling of being more emotional Closeness to and caring for parents and other family members. The more the young people felt connected to their families in this sense, the less they showed risky behavior. - The other main protective factor was the involvement in the school and the connection with the school (connectedness to school): the feeling of emotional closeness to people in the school, the feeling of being treated fairly by teachers, the feeling of being part of the school community be. Researchers found that educators cannot do much when it comes to helping teens develop a sense of connectedness with their families, but teachers and educators can do a lot to help students connect with the school community. Other studies have also shown that the feeling of being involved in school and being recognized there is effective as a protective factor against the dangers of addiction. 4 In Germany, this connection was also proven by a study on the subject of violence at school. 5 The study interviewed 3540 year-old students and 448 teachers. It was determined: The learning culture and a social climate that is characterized by co-determination and respectful social relationships, in conjunction with the quality of the classrooms and other factors, reduces the young people's reluctance to attend and violence. 3 Resnick, M. et al. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm, Findings from the national longitudinal study on adolescent health. Journal of the American Medical Association, p. 278, Battistich, V. Schaps, E. Watson, M., Solomon, D. & Lewis, C. (in press). Effects of the Child Development. Project on students' drug use and other problem behaviors. Journal of Primary Prevention. - Schaps, E., Battistich, V & Solomon, D. (1997). School as a caring community: A key to character education. In A. Molnar (Ed.), The Construction of Children's Character, Part II, 96th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 5 H. G. Holtappels, e.a. (Ed.), Violence in the socio-ecological context of schools: Research on violence in schools: manifestations and causes, concepts and prevention, Weinheim: Juventa Verlag 1999, S, ISBN: Bildungsplanreform
12 Leading educational tasks and key questions The educational standards of the individual school subjects in the various types of schools are preceded by key educational tasks and key questions. The main topics and tasks of the school are shown here. In practice, addiction prevention used to be marginalized and in many schools it was only assigned to the subject of biology in class 7 or had the character of a one-off event for project days and special events, the new curricula now require all types of schools with the central topics and The school's tasks include health education, addiction prevention and violence prevention. Administrative regulation addiction prevention in schools), is strongly emphasized in the new education plans. The aim of school addiction prevention to promote life skills and thus to develop protective factors against hazards is now also made clear in the education plans. 2.1 Education plan reform
13 Core and school curriculum Through the introduction of a school curriculum, the schools will be given more freedom to promote life skills within the framework of the respective school profile and to develop tried and tested programs to promote life skills for schoolchildren for the prevention of addiction and violence, as described in this booklet are represented. In the core curriculum of a subject or subject group, competencies and content are consistently related to one another. The core curricula are designed in such a way that they can be worked on in around two thirds of the teaching time. In addition, there is the school curriculum developed by the school, which deepens and expands the core curriculum. The goals of the educational plan can only be achieved through the interaction of the core curriculum and the school's own curriculum. Each school creates part of the curriculum itself with its school curriculum. 6 The educational standards of the individual subjects contain guiding principles for the acquisition of skills related to the respective subject and describe the skills and content in concrete terms. There are many opportunities to implant and implement models for promoting life skills in schools, particularly when it comes to deepening and expanding the core curricula in the school curriculum in the individual subjects or subject groups. School colleagues used to experience addiction prevention and health promotion activities as additional work and stress. The question arose as to where the hours for such activities should come from. In the case of longer-term prevention programs, this question was exacerbated. Sometimes addiction prevention programs were run as a working group and competed with other working groups. Additional, time-consuming commitment on the part of the teachers that went far beyond the compulsory tasks was particularly necessary if the school had developed an overall concept with addiction, violence and primary preventive measures and implemented it in different class levels. 7 Due to the construction of the new curriculum, it will now be possible in the future to provide prevention programs for training personal and social skills from the schools' pool of hours and to anchor models such as those presented in this booklet in the school curriculum. The implantation of life skills models at the school serves the school profile, helps to develop a new teaching culture, works on a central topic of the curriculum, fulfills the mandate of skills training and contributes to the achievement of educational standards. Addiction prevention and health promotion have been greatly enhanced by the new education plans in Baden-Württemberg and the framework conditions for schools have become even more favorable in order to pursue an education that is geared towards training and giving them life-affirming, self-confident, independent and resilient young people to pave the way for the future through positive basic attitudes 8. 6 (cf. e.g. Education Plan 2004 Gymnasium, p. 11 or Education Plan 2004 Realschule, p. 8) 7 An example of such an overall concept can be found e.g. B. on page 107 of this issue. Here the concept of social learning of the Heinrich-Hansjakob-Realschule Elzach is presented. 8 Administrative regulation of December 1, 2000, AZ: / 760, Addiction prevention in schools 2.1 Education plan reform
14 LEU Information Service for Addiction Prevention No. Eva Maiwald & Anneke Bühler Effectiveness of Addiction Preventive Life Skills Programs Results of German Evaluation Studies Primary preventive approaches must start early, be long-term and take place continuously. These include e.g. Life skills programs, which aim to promote skills in overcoming general life problems and in dealing with addictive substances (Fachverband Sucht, 1999). This guideline for the prevention of addictive disorders, which the Association for Addiction set itself in 1999, was also the conclusion of the 1993 report on the primary prevention of substance abuse (Künzel-Böhmer, Bühringer & Janik-Konecny, 1993). In international and especially US-American effectiveness studies, the so-called life skills programs (LKP) or life skills trainings have proven to be the most successful addiction prevention approach in schools. In the meantime, results from extensive studies on the addiction-preventive effect of school-based LBP are also available in Germany. These are summarized below. First, for a better understanding, the life skills approach and the German LKP are discussed in more detail. Addiction prevention through life skills programs Modern prevention research no longer focuses exclusively on identifying factors that increase the risk of developing substance dependence. She favors multi-dimensional models in which, in addition to risk factors, protective factors are also used as predictors. The presence of protective factors increases a person's likelihood, under certain risk conditions, of not developing a certain addiction disorder. These factors can be very close to the person's consumer behavior (proximal protective factors, e.g. resistance to consumer choice) or represent very general conditions (distal protective factors, e.g. communication skills, coping strategies). The distinction between proximal and distal protection and risk factors cannot always be made clearly, but has proven itself as an aid for a clearer classification of the extensive research results (overview in Petraitis, Flay & Miller 1995). The aim of the LBP discussed here is to impart skills in the sense of distal and proximal protective factors in order to reduce the individual susceptibility to the development of substance abuse. The first aim is to completely prevent the consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal drugs, at least in early youth. With older adolescents it is increasingly a question of counteracting the manifestation of fixed consumer behavior, i. H. to support the young people in ensuring that experimental use does not result in addiction. Complete prevention of experimental substance use is an unrealistic goal for prevention, especially in view of the low intensity of the intervention (e.g. 20 school hours in a 5th grade with 30 students) and, from a developmental psychological point of view, the efficiency of addiction prevention is quite controversial (Silbereisen 1995) Life Skills Programs 11
15 LEU Information Service for Addiction Prevention No. 15 Overview of the German Life Skills Programs The Life Skills Approach does justice to these goals of primary addiction prevention. The following more detailed description of its contents shows how the research results on proximal and distal risk and protective factors of substance abuse were directly incorporated into the intervention. Life skills education is propagated by the WHO (1994) for many prevention areas. LKP contain building blocks for generally protective behavior (life skills) and, depending on the prevention area, additional disorder-specific skills are trained, information is conveyed and attitudes are discussed. Addiction preventive LKP in Germany (see Tab. 1) address the following areas. Table 1: Overview of German addiction preventive life skills programs Program Age group Size Published evaluation (300 pages in German) with teaching materials and suggestions Process and outcome evaluation (n = 1713) Petermann, Müller, Kersch & Röhr, 1997; Müller, 1997; Petermann & Reissig, 1998; Kersch, 1998; Kersch, Petermann & Fischer, 1998; Petermann & Fischer, 1999 Intervention Program for Alcohol Prevention Class 32 lessons in 5 project days Result evaluation (n = 284) Jerusalem & Mittag, 1997 LionsQuest class Construction kit of 70 lessons for around two years of process evaluation (n = 9) Hurrelmann, 1996 LionsQuest, 1996 Ecstacy prevention program Grade A total of teaching hours within 4-5 weeks or one project week, process and outcome evaluation (n = 1100) Kähnert, Freitag & Hurrelmann, efficiency of addiction preventive life skills programs 12
16 LEU information service for addiction prevention no.15 Substance-unspecific elements (life skills) Self-perception and empathy A reflective self-concept that primarily appreciates one's own strengths and recognizes weaknesses is developed, for example, with a first-person book or a self-portrait. In pair exercises, you can exchange ideas about your own personality, which practices self-portrayal and at the same time enables you to recognize others and get to know a different perspective. This in turn prevents misunderstandings in communication. Decision-making ability and problem-solving strategy To become confident in making decisions and to tackle problems is trained on the basis of a strategy that consists of several concrete steps and is practically learned in a formula. Using the example of situations relevant to everyday life, the problem is first analyzed, decision-making or solution alternatives are generated, the consequences of the alternatives are collected and weighed up, and finally the decision is made and tried out. Critical and creative thinking Creative thinking is particularly encouraged when generating alternative decisions by means of brainstorming. Critical thinking is the subject of the lesson when it comes to uncovering attempts at influencing friends (discussion of example stories) or the media (analysis of advertising, own design of advertisements). Conveying specific questions such as Who said that ?, Why did they say that? supports the children and young people when they question messages about interests. Effective communication and social skills Techniques from behavioral training in social skills are taught in the classroom to increase students' non-verbal and verbal expression. Self-confidence in expressing wishes, demanding rights and overcoming shyness in social contacts is practiced in role-playing games. In addition, the concept of friendship or partnership is e.g. processed by means of friendship ads.Coping with emotions and stress Perceiving and naming pleasant and unpleasant feelings in oneself and in others are a prerequisite for dealing with them adequately. This is e.g. trained by means of pantomime representation of feelings or discussed in the debriefing of role plays. Progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercises and imaginary journeys are regularly built into the lessons to systematically develop relaxation techniques. Finding situations in which the students feel comfortable is also part of the training in coping strategies. Substance-specific elements (tobacco, alcohol and / or illegal drugs) Information Information about the effects and consequences of substance use is learned from information sheets, physical experiments or personal research. In view of the rather short time horizon of the age group, the focus is on short-term, 2.2. Efficiency of addiction prevention life skills programs 13
17 LEU information service for addiction prevention no. 15 negative effects. It is also important to correct consumption prevalence among adolescents and adults. Functions and causes of substance use By discussing your own use experience, by means of reports on the use of parents and friends and through the analysis of advertising messages or e.g. Toasts are worked out functions of substance use. A kind of consumption behavior analysis allows the exact description of triggers and intensifiers of substance use. Attitude formation In LKP, a well-founded decision on or against substance use is sought after weighing the advantages and disadvantages and no manipulation of attitudes. Nonetheless, the mediators make it clear that they stand for the responsible use of psychoactive substances and argue with other opinions. The image of a non-consumer is polished up, values such as health are actively promoted. Rejection of consumer offers Saying no to cigarettes, alcohol and illegal drugs is practiced in role-plays depending on the situation. In addition to steadfastness, distraction and avoidance strategies are also discussed in order not to have to consume the substance offered. Development of alternatives to substance consumption In accordance with the functions of substance consumption, behavior patterns are trained that make cigarette or alcohol consumption superfluous. This ranges from the above-described coping skills and communication and contact training to recreational activities that are supposed to provide fun and excitement free of drugs. The contents of addiction preventive LKP are processed in an age-appropriate manner. Care is also taken to ensure that the relationship to one's own person and everyday life is re-established. The didactics is based on interactive teaching methods such as Group discussions, games, and small group and pair work. A continuous, pre-structured program enables the sequence of the development of certain behavior patterns, their practice in less difficult situations and their consolidation in real risk situations to be observed. Programs that work according to the modular system therefore place high demands on the skills of the teachers. Evaluation LKP, as already mentioned, aim to support factors that counteract the early start of regular substance use. Since the programs are primarily carried out as primary preventive measures in age groups in which the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs still play almost no role, the impact of program participation on future consumption can only be checked with the help of elaborate longitudinal designs. In order to determine short-term effects, in addition to the various consumption variables, changes in the expression of a number of personality variables and cognitive scales were also determined in the present studies. These were derived from theories on the emergence of dependency and the emergence of health behavior Efficiency of addiction prevention life skills programs 14
18 LEU Information Service for Addiction Prevention No. 15 In order to check not only the feasibility of theoretical considerations in practical prevention measures, but also the applicability of the specific programs in practice, a number of implementation variables were also collected, some of them accompanying the process. In addition, each of the research groups presented here examined issues that were in the area of their own research interests. These include questions that arise z. For example, they relate to gender-specific effectiveness (Walden, 1998), the role of situational and personal conditioning factors (Leppin et al., 1998) or measurement-theoretical problems (Kersch, 1998). For the sake of clarity, the results of the working groups are not dealt with individually in the following, but are descriptively summarized in terms of implementation, acceptance, effects on consumer behavior and risk and protective factors. With one exception, the underlying studies have quasi-experimental designs that allow differences between the experimental and control group to be attributed to the intervention. However, since the majority of these are model projects and there is a lack of replication studies, a generalization of the results is not (yet) permitted. The presentation of the results is not to be understood in the sense of a meta-analysis but rather a collection of the findings. Implementation and acceptance The effectiveness of a prevention program is decisively influenced by the quality of the implementation (Kröger et al., 1999). In this respect, the prerequisites for addiction preventive LBP are very good. The materials made available were judged by the teachers to be very practicable, understandable and easy to convey (Kröger et al., 1999; Müller, 1997; Aßhauer & Hanewinkel, 2000). A high percentage of the materials offered could be implemented within the model projects (Aßhauer & Hanewinkel, 2000; Kröger et al., 1999). Training on the materials was seen as necessary and helpful, especially for the psychosocial building blocks (Müller, 1997). The addiction prevention lessons were fun for teachers and students, and that via the very long intervention intervals. They reported benefiting from the lessons, i.e. learning new things and things relevant to everyday life. The parents, who were mostly integrated through parents' evenings or homework, found this type of addiction prevention useful and appropriate for school (Kröger et al., 1999). There was an indication of a difference in implementation between the Hauptschule and Gymnasium (Müller, 1997, Kröger et al, 1998). High school teachers seem to prefer the modular system, which allows them to be optimally adapted to the needs of the class. Teachers from secondary and secondary schools prefer a more structured manual that specifies the order of the lessons and thus optimizes the coordination of the content and the sequence of learning. Initial difficulties, especially in the case of more extensive programs, lay in the exemption of hours for addiction prevention classes. Even if the teaching staff and school management saw the need for such measures - actually having hours and teachers available required a certain amount of commitment and persuasiveness. This commitment is certainly well invested, as it improves the addiction prevention climate at the school and thus creates more favorable conditions for the effectiveness of the program. Efficiency of addiction prevention life skills programs 15
19 LEU information service for addiction prevention No. 15 Knowledge of psychoactive substances, attitudes and intention to consume Effectiveness and norm expectations, affective attitudes towards substances and intent to use are direct factors influencing actual consumption. Since consumption is not yet widespread in primary prevention target groups, these variables are important evaluation criteria. They could be influenced in the desired direction by addiction preventive LBP. Trained primary school students had a lower expectation of smoking in the future, a more negative attitude towards smoking and a higher expectation of negative consequences from smoking (Aßhauer & Hanewinkel, 2000). For older students, the Leipzig working group developed a distance index that includes all three of the cognitive, affective and intentional components of substance use (Kersch, 1998; Kersch et al, 1998). It has been proven repeatedly that the tobacco distance and the alcohol distance were increased among LKP pupils (Petermann et al., 1997, Petermann & Fischer, 1999). Participation in the ecstacy prevention program reduced the students' lack of information about the mode of action and consequences of ecstacy (Kähnert, Freitag & Hurrelmann, 1998). Certain framework conditions in the school (positive class atmosphere, social support from the teacher) seem to influence the effect of an LBP on the intention to drink alcohol (Leppin et al., 1998). In addition, it seems to be more possible to consolidate existing indifferent, more distant attitudes towards greater distance than to change positive attitudes (Petermann et al., 1997). Stability Another proximal protective factor of substance consumption is stability in the face of an offer to consume psychoactive substances. After participating in an addiction-preventive LKP, schoolchildren of all age groups reported that they were more certain of being able to refuse an offer or reported more frequently that they had rejected an offer (Bölcskei et al., 1997, Petermann & Fischer, 1999; Kröger et al., 1999). Consumer behavior Influencing the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and illegal substances is the main goal of prevention and therefore the most differentiated results are available. 4th grade children who participated in the Klasse2000 program smoked less than the control children. The abstinence rate was significantly higher in the experimental group (Bölcskei et al., 1997). It was also possible to influence the smoking behavior of elementary school students who had completed the LKP Fit and Strong for Life. The proportion of students who stated that they had smoked before rose sharply in the control group over grades 3 and 4, while the prevalence among the experimental children remained the same (Aßhauer & Hanewinkel, 2000). After the 5th grade, ALF students were significantly less likely to be current smokers and had already had less alcohol intoxication after the 6th grade (Kröger & Reese, 2000). A maintenance of the intervention effects after the 7th grade could not be determined. Certain subgroups of the fifth to seventh graders in the Bielefeld addiction prevention program were more likely to abstain from alcohol up to the seventh grade (Leppin et al., 1998) than non-participants. The alcohol consumption of the experimental students (7th to 9th grade) of the Interventionpro Efficiency of Addiction Preventive Life Skills Programs 16
20 LEU Information Service for Addiction Prevention No. 15 grams on alcohol prevention decreased sharply over the intervention, but only differed in tendency from that of the control group, which increased continuously (Jerusalem & Mittag, 1997). While no intervention effects on consumer behavior were found among the older cohort of participants in the Soest program (Petermann et al., 1997), the younger cohort, who received addiction prevention lessons in the 7th and 8th grades, benefited greatly from the intervention (Petermann & Fischer, 1999). At the beginning of the 8th grade, nicotine consumption was lower in the experimental group among the students who were not habitual users before the intervention. At the end of 8th grade, this applied to alcohol and hashish consumption. There are no publications from the Ecstacy Prevention Program or LionsQuest Program about the intervention effects on consumer behavior among German schoolchildren. General competency An evaluation of life skills such as Problem solving or communication was not carried out or at least not published by the LKP projects. Only the need for such a survey and the beginning development of the measuring instruments required for it have been reported (Kröger et al., 1999). The effect of the programs on risk and protective factors of substance use such as Self-confidence, conviction in control, ability to be influenced, self-efficacy, self-worth. The sparse published data shows multivariate effects of the ALF and Soester programs on the protective factors, which can be traced back to an increase in the certainty of resistance or self-esteem and social competence (Kröger et al., 1999; Petermann & Fischer, 1999). Interpretation and conclusions What do the programs bring? The results confirm that school-based addiction prevention in the form of LKP makes sense. The programs are suitable for influencing substance consumption and consumption-relevant variables. With regard to the implementation options, it could be shown that the programs are fun for students and teachers alike and can be integrated into everyday school life. Thus, the overriding question of the evaluation studies, namely whether LKP are fundamentally an effective means of addiction prevention, can be answered in the affirmative. Looking at the longitudinal data, it is noticeable that the consumption of tobacco and alcohol could be prevented, especially in the younger schoolchildren compared to the control group, but the incidence converges up to the age of 14 years. A delay in the start of consumption of one to two years is to be seen as a success in terms of health policy despite the short period of time, since the early development of fixed consumption patterns must be avoided not only from a medical perspective, but also from a developmental and behavioral point of view. The earlier a young person starts smoking or consuming alcohol, the more likely he is to commit abuse later on (overview in Kröger et al. 1999). Different age groups need different addiction prevention. Substance-specific programs are recommended for grades 5 to 7, with the younger generation, substance-unspecific programs have proven their worth. From year 8 upwards, 2.2. Efficiency of addiction prevention life skills programs 17
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