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Transcription rules

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Table of contents of this article


What are transcription rules?

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There are a number of different transcription rules and transcription systems. The Transcription rules depend on what the transcript is made for, for the public (e.g. newspaper articles, films, series) or for studies (market and opinion research, sociological or linguistic) and what should be examined (the content or the language?) and how detailed the evaluation should be.

Basically, mostly between simple and extended transcription rules differentiated.

The simple transcription is particularly recommended if the content is to be analyzed. It is transcribed word for word but the language is slightly smoothed. This means that stuttering, word breaks and hesitation sounds (“uh”, “uh”) are avoided during transcription. This increases readability and makes the content more accessible. The simple transcription rules can also vary depending on the author.

We have ours from years of experience own transcription rules from abtipper.de developed. These are presented in detail on this page.

The transcription rules primarily concern precise instructions on how to notate what is spoken. See a separate article for detailed information on the recommended Formatting a transcript.

The transcription rules of abtipper.de are scientifically quotable as:

Claussen, J. / Jankowski, D. / Dawid, F .: Recording, Typing, Analyzing - Guide to conducting interviews and transcriptions; Hannover 2020, ISBN: 978-3750470057

The abtipper.de se transcription rules are similar to the Transcription rules from Dresing and Pehl. Both the simple transcription rules and the extended transcription rules from abtipper.de are one verbatim transcription.

In contrast to simple transcription systems, the language in the extended transcription not smoothed. That means that word breaks, stutterers, hesitation sounds (“uh”, “uh”) and intermediate sounds (e.g. “hm”) are transcribed. Extended procedures are particularly suitable if linguistic aspects are also examined. However, the more detailed the transcript is made, the less legibility it is.

Very detailed are transcripts that are created according to complex transcription rules for studies in the fields of social sciences and linguistics. In the social sciences, this is often referred to Transcription method according to Bohnsack, TIQ resorted to.

Frequently asked about the Mayrings transcription rules. Mayring is best known for the guidelines for content analysis. The "Note on interview transcription" from Mayring (2015, p. 57) describes fragments of applied transcription rules of a specific project presented in this work and is not an official, scientific transcription process. If you still want a transcription according to these rules, we offer a transcription process based on this notation system. Since most of the aspects match those of our rules, all that needs to be done is to change the coding of pauses and unintelligible passages.

In contrast to the simple transcription rules of abtipper.de, which provide for the setting of a time stamp for an incomprehensible passage, at Mayring this is indicated by dots in brackets. The number of these points stands for the approximate length of the incomprehensible point. Pauses of 4 seconds or more are specified according to the simple rules of abtipper.de by specifying seconds in brackets, while Mayring's rules provide for the notation of dashes in this case. The number of dashes stands for the length of the pause.

If you would like to order a transcription based on Mayring, select the "scientific transcription" when ordering and write a brief note about Mayring in the field for special requests.

In linguistics, the rules of transcription are even more complex. Among the best known are the phonetic transcription (according to the IPA), HIAT and GAT2 (conversational transcription system). A basic transcript, detailed transcript and minimal transcript can be prepared for GAT2. Which and how much should be taken into account depends on the research question. The transcription according to complex transcription rules is usually very time-consuming, the more aspects to be considered, the more time should be planned. On request, we will create your minimal transcript as well as transcripts according to HIAT.

In general, transcription rules can be extended by many options.The options that can be selected include timestamps, line numbering or anonymization. Timestamps and line numbering help to find certain passages in the text more easily. Time stamps can be inserted as required, e.g. every minute or by default after every change of speech. Anonymization can also be carried out individually. For example, names, institutions or cities can be anonymized.

Another option is to make a smoothed transcription. This is recommended, for example, for the media and journalism sector. The result is a print-ready text that is particularly easy to read. To this end, reformulations are sometimes made, e.g. when the beginning of sentences is repeated, and word and sentence breaks are omitted. Smoothing is therefore less suitable for scientific work.

There are a large number of transcription procedures and rules, most of which stem from the areas of social and linguistic sciences. The individual procedures differ primarily in terms of their complexity (simple, extended, complex) and their area of ​​application. Almost every process can be refined or expanded according to your own needs. Particularly within complex procedures such as GAT2, some parameters are optional (e.g. parameters relating to volume or speaking rate).

Transcription processes differ in terms of their complexity - individual aspects are optional.

The following aspects can be considered in a transcript:
These aspects can be taken into account in a transcript
Breaks / periods of silenceReception signals
Haesitation phenomena / delaysCorrections to wording
Interjections / interjectionsWord and construction breaks
StretchingDialectal sounds
Overlapping and speaking at the same time
Prosodic Phenomena
(e.g. accents, voice guidance at the end of phrases, jumps in pitch, changes in volume and speaking speed, rhythmizations)
Nonverbal communication
e.g. gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, movements in space, manipulating objects with the hand, proxemics (speaking distance between people)

Simple and Scientific Transcription Rules

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For many purposes, transcription according to simple rules is the most suitable method. This is especially true if the content is in the foreground in the analysis, e.g. in interviews for the public, such as the press or film and television, but also for scientific questions outside of linguistics, such as economics or market research. A transcription made with a simple process is also easy smoothed, that means stutterers, slip of the tongue and intervening sounds like “uh” and “uh” are not taken into account. Dialectal utterances are also reproduced in standard language. This means that the transcript is easy to read and can be passed on to the public so that interviews can be published on online sites or in print media, for example.

Simple procedures are recommended when content-related aspects are in the foreground - the transcript is slightly smoothed and is therefore particularly easy to access, also for the public

A scientific transcription is processed according to the rules of simple transcription and additionally by a Editor checked. This is particularly useful for theses.

In the case of scientific transcription, the transcript is also checked by an editor

Based on years of experience, we at abtipper have developed our own transcription rules using simple and advanced procedures.


 

Simple transcription rules from abtipper.de

These following simple transcription rules from abtipper.de can be scientifically quoted as:

Claussen, J. / Jankowski, D. / Dawid, F .: Recording, Typing, Analyzing - Guide to conducting interviews and transcriptions; Hannover 2020, ISBN: 978-3750470057

The following requirements should be observed for simple transcription:

  1. The text is adopted as it is spoken. No corrections are made, i.e. errors (e.g. grammatical errors in the sentence position) are taken over. Exceptions: See points 3 to 5.

  2. All statements, including apparently unimportant filler words (e.g. "I'll say something" or "so to speak" etc.) are recorded.

  3. Coloring of dialect is corrected (e.g. "we have" instead of "hamma").

  4. All non-verbal interludes of the speakers (e.g. stutterers, ums, ne?) Are omitted.

  5. All listener confirmations that are irrelevant in terms of content are also omitted (e.g. Hm, yes, oh yes). These are only transcribed in rare cases when these words make a content contribution (e.g. as an answer to a question).

  6. Special events are put in brackets (e.g. (sound disturbance) or (telephone rings several times)).

  7. Abbreviations are only used if the person pronounces them exactly (e.g. a spoken "et cetera" is not abbreviated with "etc." in the transcript).

  8. Only verbatim / direct speech is put in quotation marks (e.g. I asked him: "Why are you doing this?").

  9. To avoid tapeworm sentences spanning several lines, punctuation marks are used sensibly. A conjunction (e.g. "And") can be at the beginning of a sentence.

  10. Politeness pronouns such as “Sie” and “Sie” are capitalized. If, for example, people address each other during an interview (e.g. "I have another question for you"). When the interviewees use you, “you” and all forms of “you” (including: “you”, “you”, “your” etc.) are written in lower case.

  11. The upper and lower case for foreign words is chosen in the same way as one would write the German equivalent, i.e. verbs lowercase and nouns uppercase (e.g. I googled cyberspace.)

  12. All numbers from one to twelve are written out and from 13 onwards are written as digits. Sensible exceptions such as the date are also written as a number (ie "3.1.2017").

  13. Particularly important for an exact and quick assignment: The transcript is given the exact file name of the audio file (e.g. "REC- 0005"). If only one section has been transcribed, the corresponding minutes are added to the file name (e.g. "REC-0005 - Minute 0-30").

  14. The interviewer is named as I and the interviewee as B. If there are more than one person, a number is added, e.g. I1, I2, B1 etc. The names of the persons are written in bold. The exception to this are withdrawable units (see point 21).

  15. Incomplete sentences are marked with a "-" (e.g. "So then there were-, no, again: There were four people in that-"). After the "-", regular punctuation marks are set as in the example. The "-" is placed directly after the word, without spaces.

  16. Incomplete words are only included if they have added value in terms of content. Otherwise they are considered stutterers and are simply left out.

  17. Pauses longer than four seconds are marked with the number of seconds in brackets, e.g. with a seven-second pause: (7 seconds).

  18. Words for which the wording is not entirely clear and is only suspected are marked with a question mark and put in brackets (e.g. (? Librarian)). If the understood word obviously does not make sense and cannot logically fit in at this point, then the point is marked as incomprehensible (see next point).

  19. Incomprehensible passages (e.g. due to noise or other background noises) are marked with a time stamp according to the format ... #hh: mm: ss #. In the case of ... # 00: 01: 04 # there would be an incomprehensible passage after 1 minute and 4 seconds.

  20. With the simple transcription, with the exception of point 19, no time stamps are set.

  21. In the case of very short insertions by the other person (also spoken at the same time), these statements can be incorporated into the flow of speech of the other person in brackets (e.g. "I: That was 12 years, (B: No, 13th) I remember."). This does not apply to listener confirmations without added value in terms of content that are simply left out (e.g. Hm). The names of the speakers are not written in bold in the insertions. The insertions are also ended with a punctuation mark, usually a full stop. Other punctuation marks are placed in front of the insert, not after it.

Example of a transcript according to simple transcription rules:

Name of the file: Interview Mr. Müller v2

I1: Yeah, how was that for you?

B:
So, from the body sensation, the other experience was more intense.

I1:
In what way?

B:
-Don't judge 100 percent because I wasn't there 100 percent for the whole eight minutes. So, I'll say, it could have been that it would have developed differently (I1: I see it differently.) If I-. (4 sec.)

I1:
Somehow. (Telephone rings.)

B:
Yeah, so it's kind of very, very weird because I usually never fall asleep quickly. I have already been to many therapies and so on, et cetera, for example last year in Cologne with Mr. (? Schindlorz). He had also asked me: "How can that be?"

I2:
When you came you said yes, that was very much for you ... # 00: 01: 47 #. Could you explain that again?


Extended transcription rules

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Extended procedures are particularly suitable when a detailed evaluation is to be carried out, in addition to content-related aspects linguistic aspects should be taken into account. These include special verbal aspects, such as stutterers, as well as prosodic aspects (special emphasis). This means that transcription using the extended procedure is more time-consuming than using simple rules. At the same time, the readability of the transcript is made more difficult for outsiders, so that the extended procedure is only better suited in a few cases of application.

In the case of extended procedures, linguistic aspects are also taken into account, which means that the transcription is more time-consuming - extended procedures are only recommended in rare cases.


 

Extended transcription rules from abtipper.de

The following extended transcription rules from abtipper.de are scientifically quotable as

Claussen, J. / Jankowski, D. / Dawid, F .: Recording, Typing, Analyzing - Guide to conducting interviews and transcriptions; Hannover 2020, ISBN: 978-3750470057

The following requirements should be adhered to for the extended transcription:

  1. The text is adopted as it is spoken. No corrections are made, i.e. errors (e.g. grammatical errors in the sentence position) are taken over.

  2. All statements, including apparently unimportant filler words (e.g. "I'll say something" or "so to speak" etc.) and intermediate sounds of the speakers (e.g. stutterers, Hms, Ähms etc.) are taken over.

  3. Coloring of dialect is corrected (e.g. "we" instead of "hamma").

  4. Special events are put in brackets (e.g. (sound disturbance) or (telephone rings several times)).

  5. Particularly emphasized terms are capitalized (e.g. "We will NOT do that.").

  6. Abbreviations are only used if the person pronounces them exactly (e.g. a spoken "for example" is not abbreviated with "e.g." in the transcript).

  7. Verbatim / direct speech is regularly put in quotation marks (e.g. I asked him: "Why are you doing this?").

  8. To avoid tapeworm sentences spanning several lines, punctuation marks are used sensibly.

  9. Politeness pronouns such as “Sie” and “Sie” are capitalized. If, for example, people address each other during an interview (e.g. "I have another question for you"). When the interviewees speak together, “you” and all forms of “you” (including: “you”, “you”, “your”) are written in lower case.

  10. All numbers from one to twelve are written out and all numbers from 13 as digits.

  11. The interviewer is named as I and the interviewee as B. If there are several speakers, a number is added, e.g. I1, I2 etc.

  12. The names of the people are written in bold.

  13. Incomplete sentences are marked with a "-" (e.g. "So then -, no, all over again: there were four people.").
     
  14. Words for which the wording is not entirely clear and is only suspected are marked with a question mark and put in brackets (e.g. (? Librarian)).

  15. Pauses longer than four seconds are put in brackets with the number of seconds, e.g. with a seven-second pause: (7 seconds).

  16. Incomprehensible passages (e.g. due to noise or other background noises) are marked with a time stamp according to the format ... #hh: mm: ss #. In the case of ... # 00: 01: 04 # there would be an incomprehensible passage after 1 minute and 4 seconds.

  17. A time stamp in the format #hh: mm: ss # is used after each change of speaker.

  18. In the case of very short insertions from the other person (including listener confirmations and what was said at the same time), e.g. in an interview, this statement is included in the flow of speech of the other person in brackets (e.g. "I: I was new here at the time (B: Oh so.) and therefore didn't know many. ”). In these insertions, the names of the speakers are not written in bold.

Example of a transcript according to extended transcription rules:

Name of the file: Interview Mr. Müller v2

I1: Yeah, um, so how was that for you? # 00: 00: 01 #

B: So, so, from the body sensation, the other experience had been more intense. # 00: 00: 03 #

I1: In what way? # 00: 00: 10 #

B: -Don't judge 100 percent, um, because I wasn't there 100 percent for the whole eight minutes. Well, I'll say, it could have been that it would have developed differently (I1: Exactly.) When I was awake-. (4 sec) So on the other hand it is also a good sign, that means that I was completely relaxed. # 00: 01: 07 #

I1: Somehow. (The phone rings.) # 00: 01: 16 #

B: Hm (questioning). So it's kind of VERY, VERY strange because I usually never fall asleep quickly. I have already been to many therapies and so on et cetera, for example last year in Cologne with Mr. (? Schindlorz). They also asked me: "How can that be?" # 00: 01: 45 #

I2: You said yes, when when you came, that was very ... # 00: 01: 47 #. Could you explain that again? # 00: 01: 50 #


Complex transcription rules

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The complex procedures include TiQ, HIAT and GAT2, among others. These procedures are so complex that they are typically only used in the social sciences and linguistics. So they only come in whole specific fields of application for use.

Complex procedures can have different focuses. As with simple and extended transcription, these are not only based on content and verbal aspects. The exact rendering of what has been said is particularly taken into account. Non-verbal and prosodic features are also taken into account. The complex procedures are suitable for reading the transcript a Auditory impressionto win. The more parameters that are set, the more that can be analyzed and interpreted. Accordingly, the analysis of complex processes is more time-consuming and time-consuming.

Complex procedures are only used in very specific fields of application - among other things, they serve to convey a hearing impression

A well-known complex procedure is the TIQ procedure. The TiQ method (according to Bohnsack) is primarily aimed at sociological research questions. Compared to HIAT and GAT2, the TiQ method is more easily accessible (this is also due to the representation). However, TiQ is not suitable for linguistic research.


 

TiQ transcription rules

  1. Literal transcription; Intermediate sounds, listener confirmations (“uh”, “hm” etc.) and emotional expressions (“laugh”) are taken over

  2. Words are capitalized at the beginning of the utterance and at the beginning of an overlap, after a └. However, after punctuation marks are written in lower case, since the punctuation marks are to be understood intonationally and not of a grammatical nature. Nouns are also an exception, these are also capitalized.

  3. Lines are numbered

  4. All participants are given a letter with the addition f for females and m assigned for male persons (e.g .: Af, Bm, Cf).

Further signs and symbols in the TiQ process:

  • └ Beginning of an overlap
  • ┘End of an overlap
  • (.) Pause up to a second
  • (2) Number of seconds in a pause
  • What is emphasized is underlined
  • volume up What is said is fat written
  • ° quiet ° speaking is marked with °
  • . sharply decreasing intonation
  • ; slightly decreasing intonation
  • ? sharply rising intonation
  • , slightly rising intonation
  • - indicates the termination of a word: lei-
  • = marks word slurries: ham = ma
  • : marks the stretching of vowels, the frequency corresponds to the length of the stretching e.g .: "no :: n"

If you are unsure about the exact wording, the word is put in brackets, e.g .: (but)

() incomprehensible utterances, the length of the brackets corresponds roughly to the duration of the incomprehensible utterance

((groans)) Comments or remarks on parilingual, non-verbal or external events; the length of the brackets corresponds roughly to the duration of the utterance when commenting on parilingual utterances (e.g. groans).

@ no @ e.g. laughingly spoken "no"

@ (.) @ short laugh

@ (3) @ 3 seconds of laughter

// mhm // handset signal from the interviewer if the "mhm" does not overlap.

HIAT and GAT2 are complex, individually expandable procedures that are mainly used in the field of linguistics. With these procedures it can even be useful to use Video materialto work, because with HIAT and GAT2 non-verbal communication and non-verbal action are also taken into account.

Even with complex procedures, it can make sense to work with video material - this allows non-verbal communication to be analyzed

The HIAT method has several advantages, especially when several speakers are communicating at the same time and when other prosodic features are to be marked. The Score notationAlthough it affects readability, it allows several aspects to be illustrated clearly and unambiguously.

For complex procedures such as HIAT, a score notation is often specified - a corresponding program such as EXMARaLDA is recommended for representation

If the transcription is to be created according to the HIAT procedure, it is therefore advisable to work with EXMARaLDA. EXMARaLDA is a linguistic system with tools for creating and analyzing conversation corpora. This also includes the Partitur Editor tool for creating transcripts. The following is an example of the display as a score in EXMARaLDA:

With HIAT and GAT2 a better hearing impression is conveyed, but the transcripts become more and more illegible the more they are. In addition, these procedures take more time, as each segment of the conversation has to be checked several times for different phenomena (such as pauses, main accents, pitch gradients, etc.).

GAT2, originally GAT (Conversation Analysis Transcription System), was developed by linguists with the aim of creating a uniform system. This should allow data from different research directions to be evaluated. The revised version GAT2 has existed since 2009.

GAT2 is also mainly used in linguistics - a distinction is made between minimal, basic and detailed transcript

GAT2 distinguishes between three transcripts, which can be combined with one another as required: the Minimal transcript, the Basic transcriptand the Fine transcript.

The Minimal transcript contains information on the course structure e.g. overlaps, simultaneous speaking and pauses.

In the basic transcript, turns are segmented into intonation phrases, the following aspects can be taken into account:

  1. Pitch movements at the end of the phrase (.,; -?)
  2. Focus accent and heavy accent. E.g .: ak! ZENT!
  3. Stretching of sounds
  4. interpretive comments like < wow> etc.

in the Fine transcript secondary accents, accent pitch movements, pitch jumps, changes in volume / speed, etc. are noted. The detailed transcript is particularly interesting for linguists in the field of conversation analysis / intonation phonology.

An equidistant font (e.g. Courier) should be used for the GAT2 procedure, as this is a condition for further processing of the transcripts (e.g. when spoken simultaneously). Here is an example of a minimal transcript according to GAT2:

Hagemann / Henle (2014) provide detailed step-by-step instructions for transcribing according to GAT2 as a PDF free of charge. There is also an online tutorial from the University of Freiburg with practical tips on transcribing according to GAT2:
http://paul.igl.uni-freiburg.de/gat-to/

Transcription rulesOverview of transcription rules
 Simple
Rules of
typing
Advanced
Rules of
typing
TIQ
word-by-word (errors are also accepted)YesYesYes
Filler words (“so to speak”, “I'll say it”)YesYesYes
Reception signals (e.g. "mhm" affirmative)yes if answer to a questionYesYes
Haesitation phenomena (e.g.
“Uh”, “uh”)
NoYesYes
dialectStandard German (exception: dialectal words without accurate translation)Standard German (exception: dialectal words without accurate translation)is taken over
Word and sentence breaksSentence abort with -both with -Word break with -
Word blending (e.g .: "I have it" instead of "I have it")Standard German (I have it)Standard German (I have it)with = (I have = s)
Interjections / interjections (e.g .: "oh", "ups", "pst")NoYes Yes
Speaking pausesfrom 4 seconds number of seconds in brackets (5 sec)from 4 seconds number of seconds in brackets (5 sec)Pause up to one second: (.); otherwise number of seconds in brackets (4)
OverlapsInsets (even if overlapping) in brackets: I: That was two years ago (B: No!), I rememberInsets (even if overlapping) in brackets: I: That was two years ago (B: No!), I remember() The length of the brackets corresponds to the duration of the unconditional statement
short inserts
presumed wording(?Text)(?Text)(Text)
incomprehensible wordingMark on more exact
Place with ... and one
time stamp
Mark on more exact
Place with ... and one
time stamp
 
verbatim speechis in
quotation marks
set
is in
quotation marks
set
 
Prosody
strong emphasisNoin capital lettersUnderline
spoken loud / softlyNoNovolume up/ ° quieter °
Stretching of a wordNoNoExtension: frequency corresponds to the length of the extension
intonationNoNoby punctuation marks (.;,?)
Non-verbal events (e.g .: background noise, telephone ringing)in brackets (phone rings)in brackets (phone rings)in double brackets ((phone rings))
Paralinguistic events (e.g. laughing, crying, etc.)in brackets (laugh)in brackets (laugh)in double brackets ((cry)), exception laughing with @ symbols: @ (.) @ short laugh
Large and lower caseAccording to German grammar, politeness pronouns (“Sie”, “Ihr”) begin with a capital letterAccording to German grammar, politeness pronouns (“Sie”, “Ihr”) begin with a capital letterexcept for nouns, everything is written in lower case
Punctuation marksaccording to the official German spelling rules, tapeworm sentences are avoidedaccording to the official German spelling rules, tapeworm sentences are avoidedsee intonation
time stampOnly if the wording is incomprehensibleafter every change of speaker and if the wording is incomprehensiblen / a

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What are transcription rules?

Transcription rules determine the specifications according to which audio and video recordings are to be converted into text. You determine, for example, what has to be noted and how, what can be omitted and how the finished product should be noted Transcript should look like.

A distinction is typically made between simple, extended and complex transcription rules. The latter two are used almost exclusively for scientific transcriptions.

What are simple transcription rules?

Simple Transcription rules are the standard outside of science. You put one verbatim transcription firmly, but allow non-content-relevant non-verbal elements (e.g. stutterer) to let out.

In the social sciences, simple transcription rules are often used for content analysis. In linguistics, on the other hand, extended or complex rules are common.

What are advanced transcription rules?

Advanced Transcription rulesare mainly used in linguistics. You put one Verbatim transcription including all non-verbal elements (e.g. stutterers).

In the linguistics there are also a number of complex transcription rules such as. GAT2, HIAT or TIQwhich sometimes make very complex and specific requirements for transcription and formatting.

Outside of linguistics, the use of these procedures is rather unusual, since the resulting transcripts are often difficult to read and have only minor advantages in terms of content compared to the result of the simple transcription rules.