What are the geographic advantages of Switzerland
Switzerland is a federal state (until 1848: confederation of states) consisting of 26 cantons (here primarily divided according to linguistic and geographical-statistical criteria):
- predominantly German-speaking:
- Eastern Switzerland: St. Gallen, Thurgau, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Glarus, Schaffhausen, Graubünden (the latter with a Rhaeto-Romanic minority and an Italian-speaking minority)
- Central Switzerland: the three “original cantons”: Uri, Schwyz, Obwalden and Nidwalden as well as the cantons of Lucerne and Zug
- Zurich, Bern, Solothurn
- Northwestern Switzerland: Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Aargau
- predominantly French-speaking (western Switzerland, "Welschland", "Romandie"): Geneva, Vaud, Neuchâtel (Neuchâtel), Jura and (with a notable German-speaking minority :) Freiburg (Friborg) and Valais
- Italian-speaking: Ticino
Six of the cantons are called half-cantons because they were created through the division of previous cantons:
Obwalden, Nidwalden (originated from Unterwalden); Appenzell Innerrhoden, Appenzell Ausserrhoden; Basel-City, Basel-Country.
For historical reasons, the cantons can be clearly assigned to denominations:
- the cantons of eastern Switzerland with the exception of St. Gallen and Appenzell Innerrhoden
- Zurich, Bern, Solothurn and the north-west Swiss cantons
- the French-speaking cantons of Geneva and Vaud
- the eastern Swiss cantons of Appenzell Innerrhoden and (mainly) St. Gallen
- the central Swiss cantons
- the western Swiss cantons of Neuchâtel and Jura
- the canton of Ticino
With only 150,000 inhabitants, Graubünden is the largest canton (7,105 km², almost as much as the federal state of Salzburg) in Switzerland and is very diverse in terms of landscape, language - German 68%, Rhaeto-Romanic 15%, Italian 10% - and culturally. The source of the Rhine, the Inn (in the Engadine) and the waters of the southern Graubünden valleys, so that the canton is partly drained to the North Sea, partly to the Black Sea and partly to the Adriatic Sea.
Name and story
The name "Graubünden" indicates that the canton was based on the one that existed until 1798 Free State of the Three Leagues going back. The three leagues that had risen up in the Free State were that Church Association, the Upper or Gray waistband and the Ten Court Association:
- The Upper fret, located in the west, consisting of eight high courts (this consisting of a total of 22 dishes);
- the Ten Court Association, located in the north, consisting of seven main dishes (these mostly consisting of two dishes), including Davos and Klosters;
- the Church Association, mainly located in the south and east, consisting of eleven high dishes (each consisting of an average of two dishes), including Chur, Upper Engadine, Lower Engadine and Puschlav (Poschiavo).
Federal members were mostly secular and clerical feudal lords.
There were also the subject lands of the three leagues:
- the Bündner Herrschaft (on the border with Liechtenstein, also known as "Heidiland" and as a wine-growing region);
- Worms (Bormio), Valtellina (Valtellina) and Cleven (Chiavenna), until 1797 (today Italy)
Since 1497/1498 the three leagues have belonged to the "zugewende Orte" associated with the (Swiss) Confederation.
The dominion Haldenstein (in the Rhine Valley) and the Habsburg Tarasp (in the Lower Engadine), which is now in Graubünden, did not belong to the Three Leagues.
The Reformation found its way into Graubünden according to the community principle, i. H. each congregation could decide on its denomination. About two thirds of the parishes joined the Reformation, around a dozen chose parity, the rest remained Catholic. The resulting religious struggles made Graubünden a sideline to the Thirty Years' War ("Bündner Wirren").
In the course of the “Bündner Wirren”, Prince Archbishop Paris Count Lodron sent 1,000 Salzburg musketeers to deploy against the Protestant Graubündner in the Engadine in 1620 at the imperial request.But they were surprised by the opponents and badly beaten.
The Baroque master builder Caspar Zugalli (* around 1661; † 1717), who worked in Salzburg, came from Roveredo in the Italian-speaking southern Graubünden valley Misox.
- Archbishop Eberhard II (1200–1246) came from the noble family of Regensberg, which was originally based near Zurich;
- Paracelsus (* 1493; † 1541) was born in Einsiedeln, Canton Schwyz;
- Cathedral builder Santino Solari (* 1576, † 1646) perhaps came from Ticino;
- The sculptor and builder Hans Konrad Asper (* around 1588; † 1666), who worked in Salzburg from 1615 to 1625, came from Zurich.
- The Nonnberger court judge Oswald Hegi (* 1605, † 1660) came from Zug;
- Augustin Reding (* 1625 in Lichtensteig, † 1692 in Einsiedeln) was professor at the Benedictine University of Salzburg and abbot of the Benedictine Abbey of Einsiedeln;
- The important baroque sculptor Meinrad Guggenbichler was born in Einsiedeln in 1649
- The builder Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli (* around 1661) came from Graubünden;
- The Salzburg court cook Conrad Hagger (1666–1747) came from Marbach in the Rhine Valley in the canton of St. Gallen
- The middle class Zezi family came from Locarno in Ticino;
- The Sauter family of surgeons came from Switzerland;
- The Salzburg museum director Jost Schiffmann (* 1822; † 1883) was born in Lucerne;
- Peter Robert Badrutt was a Swiss hotelier and tourism pioneer in Abtenau with the Bad Handlhof;
- The Salzburg museum director Toni Stooss (* 1946 Bern) comes from Switzerland;
- Ernst von Karajan, Herbert von Karajan's father, moved to Switzerland in 1951, where he soon died
- The Swiss team of architects Bétrix & Consolascio was involved in several Salzburg construction projects, in particular the central heating power station;
- Herbert Fux died in 2007 in Zurich, Salzburg actor and politician;
- Jakob Kellenberger gave the opening speech at the Salzburg Festival 2000;
- Johan Vonlanthen, Noah Okafor and Christian Schwegler played for FC Red Bull Salzburg;
- Michael Schlüchter is a restaurateur working in Salzburg
- Oberbergrat h.c. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Karl Imhof (* 1873 in Arau; † 1944) was a trained tunnel technician and, as a non-montanist, became a successful mining engineer in the Gastein Valley in his second professional career. He also achieved success as an automobile racing driver.
In the famine years after the Second World War, numerous undernourished and needy children from Salzburg were allowed to relax with Swiss families.
The Helvetic Zone, which also runs in the province of Salzburg, is so named because it is largest in Switzerland.
In 2006, FC Red Bull Salzburg played their first European cup duel after the drinks company entered the Champions League qualification against FC Zurich (1: 2, 2: 0).
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