What does command prompt mean in computers
CMD commands for Windows: work faster with the 100 best tips
Give your mouse a break: With secret inputs via the command line (sometimes called CMD) you can reach some system functions better, some even only via them - instead of via the graphical user interface / GUI. The following list shows you the most useful keyboard shortcuts for Windows 7, Windows 8 (.1) and Windows 10. Most of them also work under Windows Vista and Windows XP. In the overview you can find out, for example, how to block unwanted websites browser-wide and how to save a Windows power plan that you have created yourself. The blocking of websites is not done via the CMD alone, but with the help of it; With a little more effort, you can also implement side blocks completely with the help of the CMD. The latter goes in the direction of batch programming; a simple example is given below.
Achieve a lot with just a few inputs: Command line or CMD commands make your everyday PC life easier. It's a good idea to keep a few of these in mind.
If you want to get to your destination quickly in everyday Windows life, it is worth taking an expedition through the following tips. Browsing through it is even more recommended if you want to learn the simplest form of programming, batch, - batch tools are based entirely on command line commands. Incidentally, the term command line refers to a computer program that accepts text input from the user; Windows has the command prompt and PowerShell here. Both on-board resources are command lines (interpreters), and the input prompt is often used synonymously with CMD (command line) or the command line.
Call up the command line as administrator
Some commands for the command line only work if you call them with administrator rights. This is the only way for the powerful on-board program to have the right to write new files to protected folders - or to replace files that are already there. Furthermore, a CMD must be admin-privileged so that you can create a WLAN report under Windows 10. If you don't always want to search for the command line via the start menu cmd and call it with Ctrl-Shift-Enter? Or since Windows 10 1803 (April 2018 Update) also with Windows-R, cmd and Ctrl-Shift-Enter? In this case you should adjust your system so that the command line call via desktop shortcut is always carried out with maximum authorization. This eliminates any problems due to a lack of privileges.
The command line always starts with administrator rights
1. Call up the command line
It starts with the start of the command line. They are by no means operated only via the keyboard: You can also drag files into the system to specify their path for further processing (delete, rename, move, compare). Here you combine several input methods (mouse and keyboard). Drag & drop into the CMD does not always work, at least if it does not work with administrator rights. So start the cmd.exe in the normal way for easy drag & drop.
Start command line: Press Windows-R, enter cmd and click OK or press Enter. Some commands require extended rights. How to request this if necessary, see the paragraph above.
With the command color change the text and background color in the command line. Experiment a little: keep going color a space, then enter a number or letter. Use numbers from 0 to 9 and letters from A to F. After you press Enter, Windows switches the font color. With color 4 for example, they create a red text color.
If you enter two characters, you also influence the background color in addition to the text. In this case, the first character defines the background color, the second the text color. color 2e for example, provides a green background with yellow letters.
With this command you delete all text that you entered in the command line and that it "answered". Previously sent commands remain in the background until the window is closed, which can be called up with F3 or F7.
The command lists a number of command line commands and a description. You learn, for example, that per title
the name of the command line window in the title bar is customizable; so would title My playground Name the CMD window "My playground". Despite a space, "" characters are not necessary here - in contrast to file and folder path specifications.
Type a command line command, a space and a /? instructions appear on how to use this command. Windows lists parameters that extend the command. This is informative, but the information is sometimes a little incomprehensible. At color For example, the following works alternatively: Add a parameter after a space that does not belong to an ordinary command. Instead of color /? So type about color Ä a; The CMD does not know how to interpret the ä-letter and therefore shows a list of the possible parameters for colors.
To quickly jot something down, type notepad one that starts the Windows editor. It loads quickly and is well suited for short or longer notes. However, you have to do without functions such as changeable text color or the possibility of only setting some text in italics and / or bold. The latter formatting options exist, but apply them only to all text or not at all.
Give mspaint to open the Paint editor. The program offers basic functions for occasional photo work, such as cutting out image areas, inserting text or making small changes with painting tools. And above all, MS Paint is made for screenshots: The slim program loads quickly, insert a screenshot with Ctrl-V, then save it with Ctrl-S. If desired, you can also use the tool to convert color and black-and-white images.
The Snipping Tool is an alternative to Paint for conveniently taking screenshots. Using the command snippingtool start the program. In addition to full-screen recordings, selective display recordings (free frames, rectangular or windows) are also possible. Microsoft has built in an optional shutter release delay in Windows 10: only trigger the shutter after a definable number of seconds (up to 5 seconds).
Give the command explorer to bring up a file management window. The command has a second function: If the Windows explorer.exe process has crashed, the command restarts the process and thus restores the missing taskbar and lost desktop icons. To enter the command in the event of a problem, open the Task Manager with Ctrl-Shift-Escape and click under "File" on "New Task (Execute ...)" in Windows 7 or on "(More details>) File> Run a new task "under Windows 8.1 or Windows 10.
Give the command charmap call up the Windows character map. You can use this to insert special characters into your text that are not available on the keyboard. To do this, mark and copy them. For some of the selected characters, the character table at the bottom right lists a number block key combination. With the you can easily insert your desired characters - provided you can remember them.
In order to quickly calculate something, Windows has a calculator ready. Call the program with calc on. Although the calculator comes as an app under Windows 10, the command still works here. The direct calculation with the command line does not work, by the way, it is different with PowerShell, which supports the basic arithmetic operations (start command for the CMD: powershell).
Do you not have your glasses to hand and therefore hardly see anything on the screen? The command magnify helps. This starts the screen magnifier, which enlarges the texts and images on the monitor to a maximum size of 1,600 percent.
This command calls up the on-screen keyboard with which you can "type" letters with the mouse. Enter text in this way and prevent any keyloggers from recording it. Keyloggers are spy programs that spy on keystrokes and thus pass e-mail passwords on to third parties. Even if the real keyboard causes problems, the osk use is worth an idea.
The label command changes the labeling of internal and external drives. Give label followed by the drive letter of a device whose name you want to change. There must be a colon after the letter. For example, if your USB stick has the drive letter G, tap label g: a. Then enter the new name you want and confirm with the Enter key. You can see the drive letter of a storage medium by pressing the Windows key and E. to press. If you want to change the partition name of the Windows partition (drive C :), it is necessary to call up the command line with administrator rights.
control takes you to the Windows Control Panel. Here you can change many of the operating system settings, including the general display type and the mouse pointer design. On Windows 10 is control particularly useful because in newer system versions it is no longer possible to call it up via the Windows X menu; control works up to and including Windows 10 2004 (tested in June 2020, May 2020 update). Microsoft has also castrated the control panel under Windows 10, and functions are regularly thrown out. It is therefore worthwhile to visit the Settings app here, possible with the help of explorer ms-settings: (the colon is part of the command and must be retained). By the way, control knows various parameters, such as netconnections or folders (you can find more information in tips 16 and 45).
16. control net connections
With control netconnections open an overview of your network connections. In the corresponding window you decide how your PC should connect to the Internet: via network cable or via WLAN. By right-clicking on the adapter it is possible to deactivate connection types that are not required. The shorter command calls the same window ncpa.cpl on. Remedy for a current problem: Newer Windows 10 versions want to force that you connect a Microsoft account during the system installation and, if necessary, create one first. If you do not want to do this, call up a command line in the (!) Windows setup with Shift-F10 and enter the command to go to the network connections overview. Here you deactivate the WLAN in a graphical window - with the mouse (!) - on a notebook, so that you can create a classic offline user account in Windows 7 fashion as usual.
With move move files: Enter move and press the spacebar. Then drag a file to be moved into the window, press the space bar again and drag the desired target folder into the command line window. After you have pressed the Enter key again, the file in question changes the folder.
18. copy and robocopy
With the command copy copy files from one folder to another. To easily create your first copy commands: Enter copy and press the spacebar. Then drag a file to be copied into the window, press the space bar again and drag the desired target folder into the window. After you hit Enter, Windows will begin copying.
As in move also applies to copy: If you know the storage location (path) of a file, you can enter it manually instead of using the file & drop function. It can even be faster. However, a file to be repositioned should not be nested in too many sub-folders, otherwise you will have to do a lot of typing and there will be no time advantage.
Copied particularly quickly robocopy Folder contents in a directory:
robocopy / MT: 128 / LOG:% temp% \ log
You can take full advantage of the PC's performance with parallelization and 128 threads.
19. del and md
over del delete files. For example, to delete a file called Trash.txt on the desktop, type del C: \ Users \ Sebastian \ Desktop \ Trash.txt a.
The opposite is also possible: If you want to create a new folder, navigate with cd
to the place where the folder is to be created. After that you give md on - if you wish, you can use several parameters to generate several folders. md has to be specified only once at the beginning. For example, you can create directories for photo collections: md Denmark Italy Croatia for example creates three empty folders with the same name.
20. Empty the folder
Would you like to delete all files in a folder, but keep the structure with the subfolders? This is not possible with the mouse, but only with the command line - quickly and automatically: cd
& del / s / q *. * is the command required.
Replace <Ordnerpfad> through the folder you want to clean up. If it's on a partition other than C :, modify the command like this:
cd / d
& del / s / q *. *
21. fsutil file createnew
Do you need a dummy file that contains garbage and has a certain size for test purposes? Tap CD a, a space and then specify the folder that should contain the item. If this folder is on a drive other than C :, first tap cd / d and only then enter the folder path.
If the folder storage location is defined, it will be created fsutil file createnew
4000000000 an approximately four gigabyte file with no extension. Adjust the parameters for the file name and the size.
22. echo off | clip
This command has the task of clearing the clipboard. Windows caches texts or images in this when you select them and press Ctrl-C. With the key combination Ctrl and V. let the data be inserted into other programs. If there is sensitive information in the clipboard, this command removes it from the working memory. Windows XP did not yet have a "| clip", it came with Vista.
Notebook owners call with the command mblctr the Windows Mobility Center. In this window you control the screen brightness, the volume and the energy saving plan. With a desktop PC, the mobility center must first be activated using a registry hack; then it also works here with the call (on the CMD side).
If several monitors are connected to the PC, you should determine how Windows handles them. Give for this displayswitch on: In the following dialog you determine whether both monitors should show the same content or whether the second monitor expands the first with additional workspace. How to get the most out of multi-monitor operation.
sndvol calls up the Windows volume mixer. This allows you to control how loud the programs that are currently running can be. You can use several sliders to graphically adjust the maximum volume of your system and that of individual applications (whereby you indirectly raise the volume of a program above the system volume to the same level).
26. regedit and regedit / m
The command regedit takes you to the registry editor. With it, professionals adjust Windows according to their wishes. Programs can be added to or removed from the (temporary) autostart. The messages that appear as balloon tips in the right-hand area of the taskbar can also be deactivated using the registry editor. If the registry editor is already running, a second program window will not work regedit to call. To open it a second, third etc. time, use the command regedit / m or regedt32 / m (they are equivalent).
If you want to send several files by e-mail, you should combine them into one file beforehand - this is more convenient when attaching. To bundle multiple files into an archive, type iexpress and follow the wizard.
28. msiexec / a
Some programs are in MSI format. You can avoid an installation here in part by unpacking these archives: No additional tool is required for this, Windows takes care of it as well msiexec / a
Instead of <Quelle> insert the path of the ZIP file to be extracted. In place <Ziel> belongs to the folder that will serve as the container for the resulting files.
29. dir / b folder> folder list.txt
Create a file list of all items in a folder or drive? This is unthinkable with the mouse - with the command line it is a finger exercise:
dir / b Desired Folder> Folder List.txt
Instead of the placeholders after the / b parameter, enter the folder to be analyzed and the path to the text file that is to contain the evaluation.Like this:
dir / b C: \> D: \ Contents-List.txt
This saves the names of the items on the C partition in a file on the D partition; the / b parameter ensures that there are no (confusing) time stamps included.
Older USB sticks and external hard drives are often formatted with the FAT32 file system so that they work on almost all devices (Windows and Linux PCs, smart TVs, DVD players, routers, ...). But FAT32 limits the file size to a maximum of four gigabytes. If you only use a USB stick or HDD on the PC anyway, replace the FAT32 formatting with the hardly restricted NTFS file system. As a result, you can easily save larger files on it in the future.
Plug in a USB storage device and open the file manager with Windows-E. Make a note of the drive letter on the stick. Then enter it in the command line within the command convert H: / FS: NTFS a, where you the H Replace with the drive letter noted by Explorer.
In contrast to formatting, there is no data loss with such a file system conversion. The reverse conversion direction "NTFS> FAT32" is not possible with Windows (and only with additional tools).
With powercfg -energy -output C: \ Users \
\ Desktop \ energiebericht.html create an energy efficiency report on your desktop. After double-clicking on the new file, you will receive information about the Windows energy settings and warnings about programs that put particularly heavy loads on the processor. Replace the part Your username> with the username you selected when setting up Windows. If you don't remember the name, you can find it out using Windows-R and "." or by reading it off in a blank command line at the top. Windows uses powercfg to monitor system behavior for 60 seconds, after which it creates an HTML file.
If you don't want to wait a minute, you can use a parameter to shorten the waiting time (the number stands for the seconds and can be around 10):
powercfg -energy -output C: \ Users \ your username \ Desktop \ energiebericht.html-duration 10
32. Battery Report
Since Windows 8, you can create a so-called battery report as an alternative to the energy efficiency report: powercfg -batteryreport -output c: \ battery-report.html
There is no 60-second waiting period for the energy efficiency report. In the example, the Battery Report HTML Report is created in the root directory of the C partition; you can also read the battery wear in the document that can be called up via a browser.
Give narrator a, Windows talks to you. The voice output for areas crossed by the mouse pointer helps people with poor eyesight, for example.
Do you want to save power and shut down Windows, but you still have to download? When it is over, are you no longer at the PC? No problem: With the command shutdown -s -t shut down Windows on a scheduled basis. Add a space and the number of seconds the system should wait before exiting the command. For example, to shut down Windows in ten minutes, type shutdown -s -t 600 a. To restart Windows at a scheduled time, type shutdown -r -t a (here, too, the time in seconds must be added afterwards).
35. slui 4
After installing Windows, you need to activate it within a certain period of time. With this measure, Microsoft wants to ensure that you are not using an unlicensed ("pirated") copy of the operating system. If you have activated Windows a few times due to repeated reinstallations, at some point online activation will no longer be possible. The command line command helps here slui 4. He calls up the alternative Windows activation by telephone, which works at all times.
36. mmc and compmgmt.msc
With mmc start the management console. This gives you quick access to system functions, such as the device manager, service management, performance monitoring or the advanced Windows firewall settings. Press Ctrl-M in the tool and add the desired on-board programs in a window (requirement for their use). The highlight: All integrated Windows on-board tools start in the mmc window. A click on one of the entries in the left window area is enough and Windows opens this tool in the same window.
It is also practical compmgmt.msc, which calls up the computer management instead of the console tree (see tip on mmc above). This is comparable, but already equipped with some system-related on-board resources ex works in the left bar - which is convenient.
With the command taskschd.msc start the task scheduler of the operating system. You can use them to automate various actions, such as calling up the browser. There is also schtasks: This is more suitable for professionals, expand it with partly complex parameters, create or delete planned tasks in Windows completely via the command line; without a graphic interface that can be operated by mouse.
If both your PC and mobile phone have a command of Bluetooth, both devices can exchange data. A Windows wizard will help you with this: With fsquirt start it. The first step is to choose whether you want to send or receive files.
Are you interested in which program opens files in a certain format? Give assoc followed by a period and a file extension, for example assoc.pdf. You will then see which program the format is associated with.
Numerous command line commands output a result. Do you want to save one without retyping it? To do this, add the parameter clip who copies the result to the clipboard. Then it is sufficient Ctrl and V. to insert it into a writing program. Here's how it works: Enter a command, like assoc.pdf. Add a space and create with Alt GR and < a vertical line (pipe symbol). Then tap clip a ("assoc.pdf | clip"). The result, here the program for opening PDF files, lands on the clipboard. See also the tip "22. echo off | clip", with which you can clean up the clipboard by clipping - it does not become completely empty this way, but it is almost completely empty.
Enter this command, you will see the processes (programs) that are currently running under Windows - similar to the Task Manager. With the relative taskkill / IM
if you quit a program, something like throws taskkill / IM iexplore.exe Internet Explorer from RAM. You can also terminate stubborn programs with the / f parameter: taskkill / f / im (Opera and Internet Explorer, for example, prevent exiting with a normal taskkill when several tabs are open, with / f for "force" it still works, something like this: taskkill / f / im opera.exe).
With fc compare files. Give fc and press Enter. Then drag a text file into the console window. Now press Enter again and drag another file into the window. After you hit Enter, you'll see the differences between the two files listed.
With winsat Check how fast a hard disk, an SSD, a USB stick or a RAM disk (memory provided by software as an extremely fast virtual drive) is. This is how you can verify read and write throughput - each with sequential or random data. Enter one at a time (change the drive letter c if necessary) and wait until the measurements are complete:
winsat disk -seq -read -drive c for sequential read speed
winsat disk -seq -write -drive c for the sequential write speed
winsat disk -ran -read -drive c for the random data reading speed
winsat disk -ran -write -drive c for the random data write speed
winsat disk -seq -write -drive c for the sequential write speed
winsat disk -ran -read -drive c for the random data reading speed
winsat disk -ran -write -drive c for the random data write speed
44. timedate.cpl, time and date
If the date or time in Windows is incorrect, enter timedate.cpl a. Correct incorrect values in the new graphic window. Subsequently, failed website calls should be a thing of the past.
You can also adjust the time and date directly via the command line. Example: time 12:00:00 and date 12/24/2020 have the consequence that according to the taskbar (supposedly) it is noon on Christmas Eve. Note that (grossly) incorrect settings - as implied above - can prevent website access; In this case, browsers display an error message. In this way, however, you can also trick many an expired test version into believing that it still has a little test run time. Sometimes Windows automatically resets such changed settings after a short time.
45. rundll32.exe shell32.dll, Options_RunDLL 0
Give the command rundll32.exe shell32.dll, Options_RunDLL 0 you can access the Windows folder options. In Windows 10 they are called "Explorer Options". In the on-board tool, you can choose whether Windows should display file extensions such as PDF or HTML or hidden files. Easier to remember control folders (equivalent to).
46. msinfo32 and dxdiag
What is the hardware in my PC? msinfo32 helps to answer this question, it opens an information window with many fold-out categories including details. These concern the system manufacturer, the processor name, the BIOS version, the BIOS start mode UEFI and much more. A special tool that tells you not only the current date and time but also the DirectX version is dxdiag. The command takes you to what is known as the DirectX diagnostic program. DirectX is important for gamers: Current games require a version such as 10, 11 or 12.
47. system info
If you want to find out more about the hardware and software of your PC, enter systeminfo a. After a few seconds, the command line outputs information about the operating system name, Windows installation date, path of the Windows directory, installed memory, installed KB hotfixes and installed (W) LAN network cards. By expanding the command, you save a text document with the following information: For example, you can create an info document on the desktop using systeminfo> C: \ Users \
\ Desktop \ Computer.txt
48. wmic> c: \ pc-infos.html os get / format: hform
The wmic command line command is not only used to maximize the console of Windows 7 and Windows 8.1. If you type in the above, you can use it to generate a table in HTML format under Windows 7, Windows 8.1 or Windows 10 that contains the most important computer information. This includes the Windows build version, any installed Windows service pack (SP) and the system product ID.
49. system info | find "installation date"
Give system info | find "installation date" to find out when you installed Windows. If you plan to reinstall the operating system regularly, you'll know if it's time to do it again soon. Please note that the information read out on Windows 10 is sometimes misleading because it is reset when feature updates are installed; therefore, you will not necessarily be shown the original installation date (unless you have not yet installed a feature update). At least, thanks to the command under Windows 10, you know when the last feature update was received on the PC - if one was installed.
With the command eventvwr open the Event Viewer. Experienced users can also see logged software errors. The times at which Windows started up in the past few days can also be determined. Since Windows 7 does not yet have a quick start mode, the analysis of the boot times works best here.
51. winver and ver
The command winver opens a window showing your version of Windows. A possible service pack (none was ever released for Windows 8 and Windows 10) is listed. The command is also practical for Windows 10: Microsoft brings a major update twice a year - only die-hard Windows fans can recognize the exact version number based on design differences alone (winver will tell you precisely).
Alternatively, you could ver Type: The command line shows the Windows version number. You can also read these out without a command; the CMD shows the number after its start at the top of the window. Is useful ver but insofar as the command line shows a lot of text and you don't want to scroll up.
52. wmic cpu get architecture
Entering the command wmic cpu get architecture reveals whether you have a 32-bit or 64-bit processor. If the result is 0, you have a 32-bit CPU. If it is 6 or 9, there is a 64-bit command receiver chip in the PC. The latter is almost always present.
For users who like specific information: This command outputs a list of the drivers available on your system. You also redirect the command output to the clipboard:
Or save them to the desktop:
driverquery> C: \ Users \
\ Desktop \ Driver List.txt
Every device that you use to access the Internet has a network adapter with a MAC address (Media Access Control) for unique identification. Each MAC address is only assigned once per device worldwide. Give getmac / V find out the MAC address of your network adapter. You need the address, for example, if you want to prevent network access in the router menu using a MAC filter. In addition to the LAN chip, you can see the MAC address (es) for a WLAN or Bluetooth module, if installed.
Do you want to access your PC in a network but have forgotten the name of the computer? Here's the solution: Enter the command whoami a, Windows tells you the PC name and your user name. With Windows 7 and Windows 8.1, the computer name must be assigned manually during system setup; Windows 10 no longer leaves this choice to the user during setup.
Ping checks whether a website can be reached: Enter about ping www.computerbild.de a. At the end of the test you can see the number of received and lost data packets. If a server is basically accessible and the browser does not display its page, the error could be with the program, e.g. Firefox or Chrome.
Which IP address is behind a website shows nslookup at. For example, to find out the IP of Xing, tap nslookup www.xing.de - but do not hope too much from it, driving numerous websites with their IP does not work.
58. rundll32 inetcpl.cpl ResetIEtoDefaults
If the Internet Explorer settings are incorrect, reset them. As an exception, the required command is case-sensitive. If you check the box in the reset window, you will also delete temporary internet files, the history and cookies. The command is useful if IE no longer starts and you cannot therefore access the reset window via the Internet options.
If the Windows 8 (.1) or Windows 10 app store does not work properly, in the worst case scenario you will no longer receive any new software. Use the digital shop (also for free apps) in this problem case wsreset back.
Windows freezes every now and then during operation? This could be due to defective memory. Play it safe and check the memory with mjed and clicking on the "Restart now (...)" button.
When the PC starts, additional software loads in addition to the operating system. These autostarts delay the readiness for use of the device and allow RAM and CPU performance. Give msconfig to clean up: Click the Startup tab in the Startup Manager and uncheck any programs that you do not want to start automatically. Since Windows 8, you optimize in the Task Manager: To do this, select the link "Open Task Manager" on the msconfig tab "System Start". By the way: expand the command msconfig To add a space, a minus sign and a number, start the on-board tool directly with the associated tab. To have MSconfig load with the fourth tab in the foreground, enter msconfig -4 a.
With the command appwiz.cpl call up the Windows software management to uninstall programs. Double-click on the line of an application to start removing it. Apps are not listed here on Windows 8.1 and Windows 10; only one deinstallation can be carried out at a time via appwiz.cpl. In the left appwiz.cpl bar you can click to open a window in which you can deactivate on-board tools such as Internet Explorer or Windows Media Player. The tools disappear from the operating system; By temporarily deactivating, restarting and then activating, you can sometimes also repair striking on-board resources. You call this repair window directly via CMD optional features on.
With the command taskmgr call up the task manager via the command line. It shows the currently active programs and allows them to be ended.A good alternative, especially for Windows 7 users, is the resource monitor: It starts over resmon and enables services to be restarted under Windows 7 (taskmgr can only do this from Windows 8) and to terminate several programs in one go.
Windows consists of many components, the interaction of which ensures smooth work with the operating system. Windows services provide certain functions, but not all of them are necessary. If you deactivate superfluous services, you relieve the RAM and the CPU and thus speed up your system. To call up the service management required for this, enter services.msc a. Here you end services graphically, such as the printer queue if you do not have a printer.
You can also stop services based on CMD if you wish: Enter
one, for example net stop wuauserv for the Windows update service (useful if it should temporarily not show any prompts to restart the system).
You can find out what internal services are called in the Task Manager on the "Services" tab in the "Name" column; Incidentally, the information in the Task Manager column "Description" is identical to the column information in the Services Manager services.msc on the "Name" tab; see the article "Windows 7/8/10: Service names different in two standard tools". It is imperative that you do not have to enter the internal name of a service in order to kill it: the regular name can be used for this. If it contains a space in the name, the latter must be put in quotation marks.
With cleanmgr start Disk Cleanup, which will delete useless data. Among other things, the function removes old system restore points and the windows.old folder. The latter occurs automatically if you install Windows on a partition with an existing Windows, but do not format this hard disk / SSD area beforehand - or if you upgrade Windows 10 to a newer major release version (or Windows 7 or Windows 8.1 to Update Windows 10).
cleanmgr / verylowdisk automatically deletes junk data without you having to select it from a list. cleanmgr lowdisk on the other hand, a Cleanmgr instance starts, in whose window all ticks are already set - you only need to confirm.
Microsoft has given Windows some graphic effects to improve the display of the operating system and to make it easier to use. If you are annoyed by it, you switch off the gimmicks - and thus accelerate the system minimally. Give the command SystemPropertiesPerformance a. You can use ticks to control whether you want animations when minimizing and maximizing windows, for example. There is more to this setting than the name suggests: It also controls whether newly opened and closed windows appear and disappear by animation.
67.dfrg.msc or dfrgui
Windows often doesn't save files in one piece, but rather where there is space on the hard drive. In the course of time, this fragmentation of programs and files slows down work on the PC: When you access your data, the system must first gather all the components on the hard drive. Optimize the arrangement of your data by defragmenting any installed hard disk. Since Windows Vista you can get with dfrgui to the graphical defragmenter.
For reasons of nostalgia, the call command of the XP on-board tool should also be mentioned: dfrg.msc. It has stopped working since Vista; the system introduced dfrgui (.exe). With an SSD, you should avoid defragmenting it, as it reduces the service life of the memory and does not bring any speed plus here. Windows 8 (.1) / 10 send SSDs the useful TRIM command instead of defragmenting them (for permanently high writing speed). You can find out more about TRIM in tip "71. fsutil (check TRIM)".
Do you want to defragment the boot files, which promises a speed advantage? To do this, type in: defrag -b c:
This does not work with SSDs and the console reports: "The startup optimization process was not performed because it is not supported for this volume."
68. perfmon and perfmon / rel
With perfmon start Windows performance monitoring. You can use it to analyze how fast your PC is and when its performance is slowing down. Using a graphical log, users can find out, for example, how heavily the operating system and the programs installed have recently been using the main memory.
Expand the command perfmon around the addition / rel, view the reliability history. The function shows whether and when problems occurred in Windows operation. Sometimes blue screens are noted here. Click on an entry to get further information. If software is experiencing frequent problems, it is best to update or uninstall and replace it.
69. diskmgmt.msc and diskpart
To divide a hard disk or SSD into several areas (partitions), you need a partitioner. Windows factory one with: Users call it with diskmgmt.msc on. In addition, they create partitions, reduce, enlarge or delete them.
diskpart is an alternative: The program offers a variety of partitioning functions, but is cumbersome due to its size and the fact that it is only operated from a console. diskpart also makes USB sticks bootable, but this is more convenient with Rufus. It is necessary to make USB sticks bootable in order to install an operating system from them. You can also use diskpart from a booted Windows installation medium by pressing Shift-F10 and diskpart enter.
The command devmgmt.msc starts the Windows device manager. It shows you information about the installed PC components, such as the graphics card, and allows driver updates and downgrades ("rollback"). The updates usually do not work.
Practical for Windows 7: Prepend the devmgmt.msc command with another: set devmgr_show_nonpresent_devices = 1 (to be executed in an administrator command line). As a result, a click sequence in the device manager has the effect of displaying disconnected devices (so-called ghost drivers): To do this, select "Devices> Show hidden devices" - since Windows 8, the extra command mentioned for the functionality of the ghost driver display is no longer available necessary.
71.fsutil (check TRIM)
If you have an SSD drive, you should check whether Windows is using the TRIM command. It ensures that the drive does not lose its (write) speed over time. Give the command fsutil behavior query disabledeletenotify to see if TRIM is on. If the result is 0, TRIM is activated. If the result is 1, TRIM is deactivated. To turn TRIM on if necessary, enter fsutil behavior set disabledeletenotify 0 a. For the mere test that TRIM is switched on, no command line with administrator rights is required, a normal one is sufficient. However, if you want to switch on TRIM, an administrator CMD is required. Windows 7 is an exception: a TRIM check already requires an administrative cmd.exe.
Microsoft distributes new Windows updates every second Tuesday of the month, known as patch day. These are updates for Windows that close security gaps, fix problems or improve speed. Give the command wuapp to check for new updates for Windows 7 or Windows 8.1. Click Change Settings on the left to choose whether to automatically download and install updates. The wuapp.exe file that has existed since Vista (C: \ Windows \ System32 \) no longer exists under Windows 10 (since 1507); the settings app takes over the update management and you come to it with you explorer ms-settings: windowsupdate
73. wmic qfe
Vulnerabilities provide attack surfaces for pests. It is therefore advisable to keep the operating system up to date with Windows updates, as they close security gaps in programs. If you want to make sure that a specific update is installed, enter wmic qfe a: This is how you see a list of all installed system updates. The list may be confusing, in that case use the command line search function (press Ctrl-F, then enter the KB name of the update you are looking for and wait until the update line has been marked).
To perpetuate the update list as a text document, redirect the command output: An info document like this is created on the desktop as follows: wmic qfe> C: \ Users \
\ Desktop \ Update-List.txt
To perpetuate the update list as a text document, redirect the command output: An info document like this is created on the desktop as follows: wmic qfe> C: \ Users \
74. firewall.cpl and wf (.msc)
Has the Windows firewall been switched off and do you want to reactivate it? Give firewall.cpl a. The settings window for the firewall appears. If you click on "Advanced Settings" on the left, you also regulate which programs are allowed to access the Internet. Alternatively, the extended configuration controls you directly, with wf or wf.msc on the command line. For professionals: Use these commands to deactivate or activate the firewall (your service remains switched on):
netsh advfirewall set allprofiles state off
netsh advfirewall set allprofiles state on
netsh advfirewall set allprofiles state on
When starting many system-related programs, a warning window of the user account control (UAC, User Account Control) appears. Only when you click on "Yes" does it continue. UAC is designed to prevent malicious programs from manipulating the operating system. You determine how often such messages should appear: Enter useraccountcontrolsettings , drag the slider to the desired position in the new window and confirm by clicking "OK". The command and the C: \ Windows \ System32-EXE-file of the same name have been around since Windows 7; Windows Vista also brought UAC with it and introduced it, but in contrast to newer systems, it was not able to configure ("scale") the protective function.
The command wscui.cpl opens the action center: At a glance you can see the PC protection status and whether virus protection, anti-spyware, firewall and user account control are active. At this central point, you can quickly fix security problems with a click, if necessary. The Action Center was a new feature of Windows 7 and inherited the Security Center from Windows XP Service Pack 2/3 and Windows Vista; however, Windows 7, Windows 8 (.1) and Windows 10 still have a coherent service called Security Center. In Windows 10, wscui.cpl is a bit castrated, the tool worked better in earlier systems and did not yet sometimes refer to the (Windows 10) Settings app.
This will enter the Microsoft Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool that hunts down some dangerous pests. MRT or MSRT stands for Malicious Software Removal Tool. The software supplements your normal antivirus program and is suitable for obtaining additional information about the security of your PC. However, the application is not a substitute for antivirus programs, as it is the only software that detects too little malware and does not have a background monitor.
Interesting: Users have to confirm the user account control (UAC) with "Yes" in order to call up the removal tool. If you click on "No", the mrt start attempt results in an error message. If the command line is again running with administrator rights, the UAC warning does not apply and the possible start problem does not arise.
With the command chkdsk / f / r initiate a disk error check. If data was incorrectly written to the PC disk due to a power failure or other PC crashes, the Windows function searches for errors and corrects them. The check also helps in some cases if you have problems defragmenting.
With chkntfs check if partitions on your hard drive or SSD have errors. Enter the command together with a drive letter followed by a colon. If you want to analyze the C partition, for example, the command is chkntfs c: - If the message "C: is not faulty" appears, everything is OK.
With the command rstrui start system restore. If there are problems with the PC, you can use this command to reset Windows to an earlier point in time with an assistant. This usually does not work with Windows 10, since the system restore is deactivated ex works and does not create any backups.
82. ipconfig / all
The command unearths numerous network details. The address behind "Standard gateway" is the IP address of the router, which you use to control its web interface if you want to change the settings of the device.
To save the extensive report data as a desktop file, redirect its creation to the file system: for example with ipconfig / all> C: \ Users \
\ Desktop \ ipconfig-Daten.txt
83. rundll32.exe InetCpl.cpl, ClearMyTracksByProcess 255
Internet Explorer saves numerous surf traces. Using cookies and the history list, third parties could spy on your surfing behavior. You should therefore delete the entries from time to time. A rundll32 command deletes different tracks depending on the number of parameters - the following command deletes them all:
rundll32.exe InetCpl.cpl, ClearMyTracksByProcess 255
If you don't have a Windows setup DVD, at least you could recdisc create a system repair disc - an emergency rescue disc. If Windows does not start anymore, insert the CD and reanimate the operating system using the automatic functions on it. The create command works with Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10 - but not with Windows 8.1. Please note that it is not possible to reinstall the operating system using such a data slice.
The operating system has been burning bootable ISO files since Windows 7: With Windows 7 this is possible by double-clicking them, since Windows 8 with a right-click and clicking the context command "Burn disk image". A command line command enables a uniform procedure - regardless of the system used:
Replace the parameters marked with <> with the appropriate drive letter or an ISO file path. You can read off the drive letter in Windows Explorer. You can drag the desired file into the CMD window if you do not want to enter its path manually. As a result of the isoburn command, a window opens in which you confirm the burning with one click.
86. net user
Windows creates a random password using net user
/ random for the current user account. It appears in the command line, make a note of it - it is active immediately. The advantage of generating: users are safe from self-deception because they sometimes come up with less complex phrases. You can also use CMD to create new user accounts, which do not require a visit to the control panel:
Hibernation is an alternative to shutting down: Windows uses this to write the data in the main memory to the hard drive / SSD, the next PC start-up proceeds quickly - and you can continue working where you left off the day before. With powercfg -h off remove the hidden hibernation file (free space) with powercfg -h on turn on the hibernation option in the Windows shutdown menu. In particular, if you do not want to use hibernation or the quick start mode (which has existed since Windows 8), which is also based on the hiberfil.sys hibernation file, you can deactivate the function with powercfg -h off at. On SSD PCs this means a nice gain in storage space.
88. powercfg export and import
With energy saving plans you regulate the relationship between computing performance and energy saving; This is particularly important for notebooks, since they should last as long as possible in battery mode. Windows does not offer a graphical menu to save energy saving plans (which you have elaborately adapted). But this is possible with the command line: First enter the command powercfg list to have Windows display some GUID numbers. Copy the GUID number of the power plan to be backed up to the clipboard. Then enter to create a backup: powercfg -export path.pow GUID (the file extension must be .POW)
Give something like the command
powercfg -export C: \ Users \ computerbild32 \ Desktop \ Backup.pow cb79054d-49b2-4637-a2b8-e5f5d90f4cee
for a backup on the desktop.
You can restore the backup with the command line command, here you do without the GUID number. In the example, restoring is done by this command:
powercfg -import C: \ Users \ computerbild32 \ Desktop \ Backup.pow
If there are PC problems, reset your computer in the PC settings using the "Refresh" function - Windows 8x is required as the operating system. With this procedure all installed programs will be lost. Users avoid this by creating an individual full backup that Windows uses when refreshing. For this they use recimg / CreateImage c: \ Refresh
90. slmgr.vbs / upk
If you want to sell a PC with Windows installed, delete its activation with slmgr.vbs / upk (there is no consultation). This is useful if the new owner does not receive your Windows license, but should already find a working environment. If you after that slmgr.vbs / dlv enter, this check function should no longer find a product key - it worked before.
91. control keymgr.dll
If you log in to websites in Internet Explorer or Edge, Windows can save your passwords in the credentials management if you wish. If you share your PC with others, it is a potential security risk. To remove the saved passwords, use the command line command control keymgr.dll (This opens a window in which you can permanently remove unwanted log-in information).
92. notepad% systemroot% \ system32 \ drivers \ etc \ hosts
Do you want to block certain websites so that no browser can access them? To do this, call the editor with notepad% systemroot% \ system32 \ drivers \ etc \ hosts
Leave the default document text unchanged. Add another line for each website you want to block. Give 127.0.0.1, a space and the corresponding Internet address as a parameter. To block the news, the command to be added would be 127.0.0.1 www.tagesschau.de ring. For the changes to take effect, press when done Ctrl and S..
If you want to edit the hosts file for page locks directly via the command line, you can do this as follows (be sure to write the> symbol twice, i.e. like this: >>):
echo 127.0.0.1 www.tagesschau.de >>% systemroot% \ system32 \ drivers \ etc \ hosts
If you block unwanted WLANs, the network dialog in the Windows taskbar will no longer offer you to connect. First, determine the SSID network name of the wireless LAN to be blocked. In the next step, enter:
netsh wlan add filter permission = block ssid =
networktype = infrastructure
Replace in the process <IrgendeinName> through the corresponding SSID. If you are connected to the WLAN in question, Windows will disconnect from it.
To make a hidden WLAN appear again, use the command
netsh wlan delete filter permission = block ssid = "any name" networktype = infrastructure
94.fsutil (disable 8 + 3 filenames)
Windows supports old 8 + 3 file names so that older programs work. That is eight letters for the name of a file and three letters for the file format. Saving these file names ensures write access to the hard disk / SSD. If you wish, you can display 8 + 3 file names in the command line with dir / x at. Windows also saves internally, depending on the setting, when you last accessed a file. This also puts a strain on drives. Since today's Windows applications can do without the old names, you can deactivate these additional memory. With fsutil behavior set disable8dot3 1 turn off internal support for old 8 + 3 filenames. Give fsutil behavior set disablelastaccess 1 a, Windows no longer saves the last access to files. If you want to know more about 8 + 3 file names and alternatively deactivate the saving of new names via the registry, read the article "Windows 7/8/10: Deactivate saving of 8 + 3 file names".
95. ipconfig / displaydns
What hardly any user knows: Even if you delete the browser history, there are traces of the last surfing session on the PC. Windows creates a DNS cache in the background: It caches the IP addresses of the websites visited for faster access. This means that the PC / router does not have to ask the DNS provider for (WAN) IPs again. This happens across all browsers. You will also find out which pages you have cached ipconfig / displaydns. The command ipconfig / flushdns deletes the telltale information - as an alternative to restarting Windows. The command to empty the cache is quicker to issue than a restart, but is more time-consuming because of the command input. The previous display (displaydns) of the DNS cache is not necessary, you can also directly with ipconfig / flushdns clean up the memory.
96. sfc / scannow
System files are one of the heart of Windows. The files ensure that the operating system functions properly. Users should not make any changes to them manually, because defective, exchanged or missing system files make Windows error-prone - and cause third-party programs that rely on them to go on strike in whole or in part. The command sfc / scannow checks the system files of the operating system and replaces them with their originals if necessary. You do not need a Windows DVD to restore them.
The Windows password is not very secure: attackers can easily decrypt it using special cracking software. An additional password offers more security: you can set this up with Syskey. Note that Microsoft removed the tool with Windows 10 1709 (Fall Creators Update). However, users of Windows 7 and Windows 8.1 as well as older Windows 10 releases can use the on-board tools and use it to set up a second password barrier that precedes the Windows desktop.
If you delete files via the Windows Recycle Bin, the operating system does not actually remove them: it just disappears from the Explorer, the actual file contents are retained. With cipher securely delete files that have already been "removed" afterwards. So third parties have no chance of getting them back with a data recovery program. The shredder was already in Windows XP. Give about cipher / w: C: to prevent data on the C partition from being restored.
Regular backups are important: if the PC suddenly goes on strike, you will still have access to your data. Open the central window for data backups with sdclt: You can use it to create a full backup, a backup of individual files or a repair CD for emergencies. In Windows 10, the sdclt window is called "Backup and Restore (Windows 7)"; the function comes from Windows 7 and is not considered reliable in specialist circles. Better to use Aomei Backupper, for example.
If you want to exit the command line, enter exit a.
Tips on the command line itself
The 100 tips above contain CMD commands suitable for beginners, plus some aimed at power users. The operation of the command line program is an art in itself: For this reason the article "CMD: The best tips for the Windows command line" is not dedicated to the commands - instead it is about understanding basic CMD operating procedures. How to use the console window more intelligently. Its history function and the Escape key, which discards a command input with a typing error, are useful. The linked article or the following photo series is ideal reading for command line friends:
Use the Windows command line - and configure it
Official PDF documentation from Microsoft
Microsoft has put together a practical collection of useful command line commands with the Windows Commands Reference. This free PDF documentation contains links and can be searched with Ctrl-F, so that you can quickly call up explanations of hidden system functions by clicking or using the keyboard. In addition to the basic command structure (syntax), you will also find out possible parameters that define the exact command effect. Additional concrete examples clearly encourage people to follow suit; but you should be able to speak the English language. At least the pre-installed command line programs are covered here; Microsoft cannot consider reloadable ones from the Internet, as they are available in innumerable quantities.
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