What is a muscle tissue function

Summary (cells, cell division and tissues)

Author: Nicole

The cell is the smallest living building block in the body. Each cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell nucleus inside and is delimited by the cell membrane.

Cell nucleus: The most important cell population. It controls the vital processes in the cell and contains chromatin as a carrier of inheritance.

Cytoplasm: is a gel-like substance and surrounds the cell organelles.

Cell wall with cell pores: Active transport (with energy consumption) and also passive passage (e.g. by compensating for concentration gradients) are possible.

CELL DIVISION:

Mitosis: Cell division while growing. A mother cell forms two identical daughter cells, with the cytoplasm and nucleus dividing, with 46 individual chromosomes (22 chromosome pairs and 2 sex chromosomes.) The male has one X and one Y chromosome as sex chromosomes, the woman two X chromosomes.

Meiosis: Cell division of the sex cells. Two daughter cells with half a set of chromosomes are formed from a mother cell, each with 22 individual chromosomes and 1 sex chromosome. Egg cell = 22 + X, sperm cell = 22 + x or 22 + Y

Interphase: resting phase: The nucleus is chromatin, granular mass.

Prophase: Chromatin changes, thread-like chromosomes become visible. Of each type of chromosome (of which there are quite a few) there are still two available: 1 from the father, + from the mother.

Metaphase: doubling phase: The nuclear membrane dissolves and the chromosomes migrate to the middle of the cell. They get thicker and shorter. 2 halves become visible, spindle fibers form, which hold the chromosomes together.

Anaphase: chromosome separation phase: All chromosomes consist of 2 identical parts. The spindle fibers hold the chromosomes in place and pull the halves apart.

Telophase: cell separation phase: A new cell wall forms in the middle of the mother cell. New nuclear membranes are formed. The spindle fibers disappear.

2 daughter cells have emerged, the chromosomes become invisible again!

CELL TYPES IN HUMANS:

The cells all come from one cell, created by the fusion of the egg cell and sperm cell. (Each with half the chromosome set.)

All cells have a uniform basic scheme and specialize depending on the task.

Tissue: Association of similar cells.

Organ: Part of the body that represents a unit of a certain shape and function and is made up of different tissues.

Tissue types: epithelial tissue: Function: lines body surfaces, protection, breathing, blood circulation, substance release, substance absorption, stimulus absorption

Single-layer squamous epithelium = interconnection: Function: passage of solid, liquid and gaseous substances

Occurrence: alveoli, vessel walls, capillaries (hair vessels) everywhere in the body.

Multilayered squamous epithelium: Function: protection

Occurrence: keratinized skin: feet, hands, elbows, abdomen

Occurrence: uncornified mucous membrane: mouth, nose, intimate

Ciliated epithelium: Function: cleaning, humidifying the air you breathe

Occurrence: respiratory tract

Columnar epithelium: Function: absorption (absorption of substances) on an enlarged surface

Occurrence: small intestine, intestinal villi

Sensory epithelium: Function: stimulus absorption

Occurrence: sensory cells (nerve cells)

connective tissue : Function: connection, shaping

Occurrence: framework of many organs, organ sheaths, tendons, joint capsules

Adipose tissue: Function: padding, energy storage, thermal protection

Occurrence: e.g. subcutaneous tissue, buttocks

Muscle tissue: Function: movement through contraction

Occurrence: smooth muscles: gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, blood vessels

Occurrence: striated muscles: skeletal muscles

Occurrence: Cardiac muscles: heart

Cartilage tissue: Function: high compressive strength

Bone tissue: Function: skeletal formation, blood formation

Occurrence: fine-fibred lamellar bone (adult skeleton)

Occurrence: coarse-fiber braided bone (baby skeleton)

Difference Between Bone and Cartilage:

Cartilage: soft, elastic

Bones: calcium deposits, compressive strength, calcium


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