What is a muscle tissue function

Summary (cells, cell division and tissues)

Author: Nicole

The cell is the smallest living building block in the body. Each cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell nucleus inside and is delimited by the cell membrane.

Cell nucleus: The most important cell population. It controls the vital processes in the cell and contains chromatin as a carrier of inheritance.

Cytoplasm: is a gel-like substance and surrounds the cell organelles.

Cell wall with cell pores: Active transport (with energy consumption) and also passive passage (e.g. by compensating for concentration gradients) are possible.


Mitosis: Cell division while growing. A mother cell forms two identical daughter cells, with the cytoplasm and nucleus dividing, with 46 individual chromosomes (22 chromosome pairs and 2 sex chromosomes.) The male has one X and one Y chromosome as sex chromosomes, the woman two X chromosomes.

Meiosis: Cell division of the sex cells. Two daughter cells with half a set of chromosomes are formed from a mother cell, each with 22 individual chromosomes and 1 sex chromosome. Egg cell = 22 + X, sperm cell = 22 + x or 22 + Y

Interphase: resting phase: The nucleus is chromatin, granular mass.

Prophase: Chromatin changes, thread-like chromosomes become visible. Of each type of chromosome (of which there are quite a few) there are still two available: 1 from the father, + from the mother.

Metaphase: doubling phase: The nuclear membrane dissolves and the chromosomes migrate to the middle of the cell. They get thicker and shorter. 2 halves become visible, spindle fibers form, which hold the chromosomes together.

Anaphase: chromosome separation phase: All chromosomes consist of 2 identical parts. The spindle fibers hold the chromosomes in place and pull the halves apart.

Telophase: cell separation phase: A new cell wall forms in the middle of the mother cell. New nuclear membranes are formed. The spindle fibers disappear.

2 daughter cells have emerged, the chromosomes become invisible again!


The cells all come from one cell, created by the fusion of the egg cell and sperm cell. (Each with half the chromosome set.)

All cells have a uniform basic scheme and specialize depending on the task.

Tissue: Association of similar cells.

Organ: Part of the body that represents a unit of a certain shape and function and is made up of different tissues.

Tissue types: epithelial tissue: Function: lines body surfaces, protection, breathing, blood circulation, substance release, substance absorption, stimulus absorption

Single-layer squamous epithelium = interconnection: Function: passage of solid, liquid and gaseous substances

Occurrence: alveoli, vessel walls, capillaries (hair vessels) everywhere in the body.

Multilayered squamous epithelium: Function: protection

Occurrence: keratinized skin: feet, hands, elbows, abdomen

Occurrence: uncornified mucous membrane: mouth, nose, intimate

Ciliated epithelium: Function: cleaning, humidifying the air you breathe

Occurrence: respiratory tract

Columnar epithelium: Function: absorption (absorption of substances) on an enlarged surface

Occurrence: small intestine, intestinal villi

Sensory epithelium: Function: stimulus absorption

Occurrence: sensory cells (nerve cells)

connective tissue : Function: connection, shaping

Occurrence: framework of many organs, organ sheaths, tendons, joint capsules

Adipose tissue: Function: padding, energy storage, thermal protection

Occurrence: e.g. subcutaneous tissue, buttocks

Muscle tissue: Function: movement through contraction

Occurrence: smooth muscles: gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, blood vessels

Occurrence: striated muscles: skeletal muscles

Occurrence: Cardiac muscles: heart

Cartilage tissue: Function: high compressive strength

Bone tissue: Function: skeletal formation, blood formation

Occurrence: fine-fibred lamellar bone (adult skeleton)

Occurrence: coarse-fiber braided bone (baby skeleton)

Difference Between Bone and Cartilage:

Cartilage: soft, elastic

Bones: calcium deposits, compressive strength, calcium

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