What is the work of the Golgi bodies

Name: Mehrose Sheikh, 2019-01

The Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus is a membrane system that is present in eukaryotic cells. It counts as a sorting and dispatch system of the endomembrane system of a cell.
The Golgi apparatus is used for cell metabolism and the transport of substances. The Golgi apparatus is the term used to describe the entirety of all dictyosomes in a cell.

Image: Cross-section of an animal cell with Golgi apparatus

The number of dictyosomes in a cell can vary widely. For example, an algae cell has only one dictyosome, while in a liver cell 250 dictyosomes form the Golgi apparatus.

The dictyosome

A dictyosome consists of 5-20 cisterns (flat, hollow, stacked membrane sacs) surrounded by membrane vesicles. The interior of the cisterns is called lumen.
A dictyosome has a polarity in the cell, because the receiving side faces the cell nucleus, surrounded by the endoplasmic reticulum.

Image: Structure of a dictyosome

Functions of the Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus produces secretions for the body. These include, for example, sweat, saliva, tears, mucous membranes, etc.
To use the produced secretions, the Golgi apparatus constricts the secretions from the dispatch side in Golgi vesicles towards the cell edge.

The Golgi apparatus also makes digestive enzymes. Digestive enzymes protect the cell by digesting foreign objects. Digestive enzymes are also packaged in Golgi vesicles and constricted in the cell plasma.

In addition, the Golgi apparatus absorbs the synthesis products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
To do this, a filled transport vesicle reaches the receiving side of a dictyosome and then fuses with the dictyosome membrane. Thus, proteins, for example, get into the lumen. Here they are sorted, processed, stored, concentrated or otherwise chemically changed.
At the end, the substances are pinched off in Golgi vesicles.

Depending on the function of the constricted substances, the Golgi vesicles are either distributed in their own cell by the Golgi apparatus or removed from the cell (exocytosis).